344 research outputs found

    Search for a massive scalar resonance decaying to a light scalar and a Higgs boson in the four b quarks final state with boosted topology

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    We search for new massive scalar particles X and Y through the resonant process X ‚Üí\to YH ‚Üí\to bbňČbbňČ\mathrm{b\bar{b}b\bar{b}}, where H is the standard model Higgs boson. Data from CERN LHC proton-proton collisions are used, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2016-2018 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb‚ąí1^{-1}. The search is performed in mass ranges of 0.9-4 TeV for X and 60-600 GeV for Y, where both Y and H are reconstructed as Lorentz-boosted single large-area jets. The results are interpreted in the context of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model and also in an extension of the standard model with two additional singlet scalar fields. The 95% confidence level upper limits for the production cross section vary between 0.1 and 150 fb depending on the X and Y masses, and represent a significant improvement over results from previous searches

    Local minima in quantum systems

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    Finding ground states of quantum many-body systems is known to be hard for both classical and quantum computers. As a result, when Nature cools a quantum system in a low-temperature thermal bath, the ground state cannot always be found efficiently. Instead, Nature finds a local minimum of the energy. In this work, we study the problem of finding local minima in quantum systems under thermal perturbations. While local minima are much easier to find than ground states, we show that finding a local minimum is computationally hard for classical computers, even when the task is to output a single-qubit observable at any local minimum. In contrast, we prove that a quantum computer can always find a local minimum efficiently using a thermal gradient descent algorithm that mimics the cooling process in Nature. To establish the classical hardness of finding local minima, we consider a family of two-dimensional Hamiltonians such that any problem solvable by polynomial-time quantum algorithms can be reduced to finding ground states of these Hamiltonians. We prove that for such Hamiltonians, all local minima are global minima. Therefore, assuming quantum computation is more powerful than classical computation, finding local minima is classically hard and quantumly easy.Comment: 9+80 pages, 4 figure

    Politics matters for individual attitudes toward vaccine donation: cross-national evidence from the United States and Taiwan

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    Abstract Background Vaccine equity has been a major concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the principle of vaccine equity, donor countries should apply the criterion of needs to make decisions about vaccine donation instead of considering recipient countries‚Äô economic status. We examine whether people follow the same criterion or consider other factors to decide which country to donate vaccines and how many vaccines should be delivered. Methods We conducted online surveys with the design of conjoint experiment in the United States and Taiwan in 2021. 1,532 American citizens and 1,587 Taiwanese citizens were interviewed. The respondents were broadly quota-matched to their respective demographic proportions on the dimensions of age, gender, and education. We estimated the average marginal component effects (AMCEs) of the conjoint attributes by using the OLS regression models with standard errors clustered at the respondent level. Results 15,320 and 15,870 decisions on vaccine donation generated by conjoint experiment respectively in the United States and Taiwan were included in the analysis. Both American and Taiwanese people tend to donate vaccines to countries that suffer severe consequences of COVID-19 and democracies compared to authoritarian countries. However, they are less willing to donate vaccines to those with higher levels of capability in response to COVID-19. Taiwanese people tend to donate vaccines to countries having formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan (AMCE 13.4%, 95% CI 11.8%-15.1%). Nonetheless, American people would rather donate vaccines to countries without formal diplomatic relations with the United States (AMCE ‚ąí‚ÄČ4.0%, 95% CI -5.6%--2.4%). Conclusions The findings reveal that politics plays a significant role in people‚Äôs decisions about vaccine donation. Under electoral pressure, political leaders must think about how to respond to the public‚Äôs preferences over vaccine donation to achieve vaccine equity and address the global health crisis

    Genome-wide association study of lung adenocarcinoma in East Asia and comparison with a European population.

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    Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. Known risk variants explain only a small fraction of lung adenocarcinoma heritability. Here, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of lung adenocarcinoma of East Asian ancestry (21,658 cases and 150,676 controls; 54.5% never-smokers) and identified 12 novel susceptibility variants, bringing the total number to 28 at 25 independent loci. Transcriptome-wide association analyses together with colocalization studies using a Taiwanese lung expression quantitative trait loci dataset (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ115) identified novel candidate genes, including FADS1 at 11q12 and ELF5 at 11p13. In a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of East Asian and European studies, four loci were identified at 2p11, 4q32, 16q23, and 18q12. At the same time, most of our findings in East Asian populations showed no evidence of association in European populations. In our studies drawn from East Asian populations, a polygenic risk score based on the 25 loci had a stronger association in never-smokers vs. individuals with a history of smoking (Pinteraction‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.0058). These findings provide new insights into the etiology of lung adenocarcinoma in individuals from East Asian populations, which could be important in developing translational applications

    Patterns of oral anticoagulant use and outcomes in Asian patients with atrial fibrillation: a post-hoc analysis from the GLORIA-AF Registry

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    Background: Previous studies suggested potential ethnic differences in the management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to analyse oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription, discontinuation, and risk of adverse outcomes in Asian patients with AF, using data from a global prospective cohort study. Methods: From the GLORIA-AF Registry Phase II-III (November 2011-December 2014 for Phase II, and January 2014-December 2016 for Phase III), we analysed patients according to their self-reported ethnicity (Asian vs. non-Asian), as well as according to Asian subgroups (Chinese, Japanese, Korean and other Asian). Logistic regression was used to analyse OAC prescription, while the risk of OAC discontinuation and adverse outcomes were analysed through Cox-regression model. Our primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The original studies were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01468701, NCT01671007, and NCT01937377. Findings: 34,421 patients were included (70.0 ¬Ī 10.5 years, 45.1% females, 6900 (20.0%) Asian: 3829 (55.5%) Chinese, 814 (11.8%) Japanese, 1964 (28.5%) Korean and 293 (4.2%) other Asian). Most of the Asian patients were recruited in Asia (n = 6701, 97.1%), while non-Asian patients were mainly recruited in Europe (n = 15,449, 56.1%) and North America (n = 8378, 30.4%). Compared to non-Asian individuals, prescription of OAC and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) was lower in Asian patients (Odds Ratio [OR] and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.23 [0.22-0.25] and 0.66 [0.61-0.71], respectively), but higher in the Japanese subgroup. Asian ethnicity was also associated with higher risk of OAC discontinuation (Hazard Ratio [HR] and [95% CI]: 1.79 [1.67-1.92]), and lower risk of the primary composite outcome (HR [95% CI]: 0.86 [0.76-0.96]). Among the exploratory secondary outcomes, Asian ethnicity was associated with higher risks of thromboembolism and intracranial haemorrhage, and lower risk of major bleeding. Interpretation: Our results showed that Asian patients with AF showed suboptimal thromboembolic risk management and a specific risk profile of adverse outcomes; these differences may also reflect differences in country-specific factors. Ensuring integrated and appropriate treatment of these patients is crucial to improve their prognosis. Funding: The GLORIA-AF Registry was funded by Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH

    Validation of the molecular international prognostic scoring system in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes defined by international consensus classification

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    Abstract Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have varied prognoses and require a risk-adapted treatment strategy for treatment optimization. Recently, a molecular prognostic model (Molecular International Prognostic Scoring System [IPSS-M]) that combines clinical parameters, cytogenetic abnormalities, and mutation topography was proposed. This study validated the IPSS-M in 649 patients with primary MDS (based on the 2022 International Consensus Classification [ICC]) and compared its prognostic power to those of the IPSS and revised IPSS (IPSS-R). Overall, 42.5% of the patients were reclassified and 29.3% were up-staged from the IPSS-R. After the reclassification, 16.9% of the patients may receive different treatment strategies. The IPSS-M had greater discriminative potential than the IPSS-R and IPSS. Patients with high, or very high-risk IPSS-M might benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. IPSS-M, age, ferritin level, and the 2022 ICC categorization predicted outcomes independently. After analyzing demographic and genetic features, complementary genetic analyses, including KMT2A-PTD, were suggested for accurate IPSS-M categorization of patients with ASXL1, TET2, STAG2, RUNX1, SF3B1, SRSF2, DNMT3A, U2AF1, and BCOR mutations and those classified as MDS, not otherwise specified with single lineage dysplasia/multi-lineage dysplasia based on the 2022 ICC. This study confirmed that the IPSS-M can better risk-stratified MDS patients for optimized therapeutic decision-making

    Sparsentan in patients with IgA nephropathy: a prespecified interim analysis from a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial