2,814 research outputs found

    Designing and implementing a multi-scalar approach to Maritime Spatial Planning: The case study of Italy

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    The Italian coastal and marine space includes areas with remarkable differences in terms of oceanographic characteristics, maritime uses, natural habitats, species distribution, landscape and cultural heritage. In Italy, coastal and marine management competencies are shared among national, regional, and for some aspects even local authorities. This geographic heterogeneity and governance complexity required the adoption of a multiscalar approach to Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP). Such an approach aims at implementing decision-making and spatial planning at multiple and nested scales. In the case of Italy, the multi-scalar approach included the definition of national guidelines and the development of three maritime spatial (MS) plans, one for each maritime area (Adriatic, Ionian and Central Mediterranean, and Tyrrhenian and Western Mediterranean), including subareas and nested planning units. The development of the MS plans involved competent Ministries, the coastal Regions and several researchers. Based on the description of the adopted six-phase methodology and the exemplification of results of the Italian MSP process, this paper discusses the most relevant features and common challenges of multi-scalar MSP (i.e. co-planning, vertical and horizontal integration, multi-level governance, scalability, flexibility, integration of data and knowledge with different resolution, multi-scalar stakeholder engagement). Finally, the paper reflects on some novel aspects of the adopted multi-scalar approach and identifies actions to grant efficacy to this approach during the next phases of the Italian MSP proces

    Prevalence of Frailty in European Emergency Departments (FEED): an international flash mob study

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    Introduction Current emergency care systems are not optimized to respond to multiple and complex problems associated with frailty. Services may require reconfiguration to effectively deliver comprehensive frailty care, yet its prevalence and variation are poorly understood. This study primarily determined the prevalence of frailty among older people attending emergency care. Methods This cross-sectional study used a flash mob approach to collect observational European emergency care data over a 24-h period (04 July 2023). Sites were identified through the European Task Force for Geriatric Emergency Medicine collaboration and social media. Data were collected for all individuals aged 65‚ÄČ+‚ÄČwho attended emergency care, and for all adults aged 18‚ÄČ+‚ÄČat a subset of sites. Variables included demographics, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), vital signs, and disposition. European and national frailty prevalence was determined with proportions with each CFS level and with dichotomized CFS 5‚ÄČ+‚ÄČ(mild or more severe frailty). Results Sixty-two sites in fourteen European countries recruited five thousand seven hundred eighty-five individuals. 40% of 3479 older people had at least mild frailty, with countries ranging from 26 to 51%. They had median age 77 (IQR, 13) years and 53% were female. Across 22 sites observing all adult attenders, older people living with frailty comprised 14%. Conclusion 40% of older people using European emergency care had CFS 5‚ÄČ+‚ÄČ. Frailty prevalence varied widely among European care systems. These differences likely reflected entrance selection and provide windows of opportunity for system configuration and workforce planning

    Co-designing versatile quadruped robots for dynamic and energy-efficient motions

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    This paper presents a bi-level optimization framework to concurrently optimize a quadruped hardware and control policies for achieving dynamic cyclic behaviors. The longterm vision to drive the design of dynamic and efficient robots by means of computational techniques is applied to improve the development of a new quadruped prototype. The scale of the robot and its actuators are optimized for energy efficiency considering a complete model of the motor, that includes friction, torque, and bandwidth limitations. This model is used to optimize the power consumption during bounding and backflip tasks and is validated by tracking the output trajectories on the first prototype iteration. The co-design results show an improvement of up to 87% for a single task optimization. It appears that, for jumping forward, robots with longer thighs perform better, while for backflips, longer shanks are better suited. To understand the trade-off between these different choices, a Pareto set is constructed to guide the design of the next prototype

    Ivrea la bella, vent'anni dopo

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    A leading figure of the already historic Congress of Ivrea in 1967, which gave start to the fertile season of Italian theatrical avant-gard, weighs in the balance of the anniversary Congress, held last autumn in Ivrea, on occasion of its twentieth anniversary

    Microstructure characteristics and tribological behaviour of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings

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    Surface engineering is increasingly becoming inevitable for meeting the high-performance requirements constantly expected from modern engineering components. Higher demands for combined functionalities, which a base material alone cannot provide, motivate intensive academic studies on various types of coatings, with the ultimate objective of their practical utilisation in industries. Especially the study of wear has become of critical importance for the industry development of new components, as wear-related mechanisms frequently compromise the durability and reliability of machines. Consequently, the need for effective wear control has become progressively vital in pursuing advanced and dependable technology for the future. Different coating technologies are being developed to forestall the wear of engineering components. More specifically, the thermal spraying technique of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) has been proven particularly efficient in implementing thick film coating for aeronautic, automotive and medical applications. However, advanced coatings are required for improved performance and extended durability in harsh operating environments. These developments have stimulated research on developing novel coating through optimised deposition parameters and modified feedstock characteristics to achieve a more redefined microstructure. The primary scope of the research associated with this thesis is to target the study and research of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings designed to provide exceptional wear resistance to targeted components as well as improved mechanical properties. The presented work involves an investigation of varying feedstock powder particle-size distributions, different coating chemistries and comparing the suspension plasma injection technology to its more traditional powdered feedstock variant. The result obtained suggested that the influence of powder-size particles affects the resultant microstructure with a finer composition, denoted by a lower porosity of 1.3% compared to the coarser powder fed 1.9% (both presenting a standard deviation of 0.2%). However, it could be seen that both the presence of optimised spraying parameters and finer feedstock particles were significant in obtaining improved mechanical properties. Furthermore, an examination of the powder-fed coating revealed slightly improved hardness properties to the newly developed suspension-sprayed samples. However, the powder-fed coatings distinctly exhibited superior resistance to sliding wear with an average specific wear of 5.7 (¬Ī 0.9 standard deviation) compared to the 12.8 (¬Ī 1 standard deviation) √ó 10-6 mm3‚ąôN-1‚ąôm-1of suspension-based coatings. In conclusion, it was observed that the chemical composition of the alumina-chromia composite coating demonstrated exceptional hardness properties among the analysed samples (1603 Vicker Hardness 0.2) and superior sliding wear resistance (0.59 √ó 10-6mm3‚ąôN-1‚ąôm-1)

    Final Doctoral Recital

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    Coltrane, John and Fadini, Alessandro. Please see Additional Documents for Recital Program

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Putative circulating adipose tissue-derived stem cells, obesity, and metabolic syndrome features

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    Purpose: In mice, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) reach the systemic circulation and establish ectopic adipose depots fostering insulin resistance, but whether this occurs in humans is unknown. We examined circulating ASCs in individuals with various combination of metabolic syndrome traits. Methods: We enrolled patients attending a routine metabolic evaluation or scheduled for bariatric surgery. We quantified ASCs as CD34+CD45-CD31-(CD36+) cells in the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples and examined the presence and frequency of putative ASCs in peripheral blood. Results: We included 111 patients (mean age 59¬†years, 55% males), 40 of whom were scheduled for bariatric surgery. The population of CD34+CD45-CD31- ASCs was significantly more frequent in visceral than subcutaneous adipose depots (10.4 vs 4.1% of the stromal vascular fraction; p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001), but not correlated with BMI or metabolic syndrome traits. The same phenotype of ASCs was detectable in peripheral blood of 58.6% of patients. Those with detectable circulating ASCs had significantly higher BMI (37.8 vs 33.3¬†kg/m2; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.003) and waist (111.2 vs 105.4¬†cm; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001), but no difference in other metabolic syndrome traits (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.84). After bariatric surgery, patients with detectable circulating ASCs had greater BMI reductions at 6¬†months (-¬†10.4 vs -¬†7.8¬†kg/m2; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.014). Conclusion: Presence of putative circulating ASCs, antigenically similar to those observed in the adipose tissue, is associated with greater adiposity and larger BMI reduction after surgery, but not with clinical signs of metabolic impairment. The role of circulating ASCs in adipose tissue biology and systemic metabolism deserves further investigation

    Deep-learning-based natural-language-processing models to identify cardiovascular disease hospitalisations of patients with diabetes from routine visits' text

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    : Writing notes is the most widespread method to report clinical events. Therefore, most of the information about the disease history of a patient remains locked behind free-form text. Natural language processing (NLP) provides a solution to automatically transform free-form text into structured data. In the present work, electronic healthcare records data of patients with diabetes were used to develop deep-learning based NLP models to automatically identify, within free-form text describing routine visits, the occurrence of hospitalisations related to cardiovascular disease (CVDs), an outcome of diabetes. Four possible time windows of increasing level of expected difficulty were considered: infinite, 24 months, 12 months, and 6 months. Model performance was evaluated by means of the area under the precision recall curve, as well as precision, recall, and F1-score after thresholding. Results showed that the proposed NLP approach was successful for both the infinite and 24-month windows, while, as expected, performance deteriorated with shorter time windows. Possible clinical applications of tools based on the proposed NLP approach include the retrospective filling of medical records with respect to a patient's CVD history for epidemiological and research purposes as well as for clinical decision making

    Tra filologia e incunabolistica: due guerre in ottava rima in copia unica della Biblioteca comunale di Trento, probabili ‚Äėnuovi‚Äô incunaboli, e una edizione scomparsa

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    L’articolo analizza due edizioni sine notis sopravvissute in copia unica (Lamento di Negroponte e Guerra del Turcho contro Rhodi) contenute in una miscellanea della Biblioteca comunale di Trento. Lo studio delle xilografie, dei caratteri impiegati e l’analisi della filigrana presente in una delle due edizioni suggeriscono di attribuire entrambe le stampe al veneziano Giacomo Penzio e di proporre una datazione attorno al 1500. L’articolo analizza inoltre la storia della tradizione a stampa del Lamento di Negroponte arrivando a postulare l’esistenza di una edizione scomparsa di quest’opera
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