94 research outputs found

    Maximal cyclic electron flow rate is independent of PGRL1 in Chlamydomonas.

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    Cyclic electron flow (CEF) is defined as a return of the reductants from the acceptor side of Photosystem I (PSI) to the pool of its donors via the cytochrome b6f. It is described to be complementary to the linear electron flow and essential for photosynthesis. However, despite many efforts aimed to characterize CEF, its pathway and its regulation modes remain equivocal, and its physiological significance is still not clear. Here we use novel spectroscopic to measure the rate of CEF at the onset of light in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The initial redox state of the photosynthetic chain or the oxygen concentration do not modify the initial maximal rate of CEF (60 electrons per second per PSI) but rather strongly influence its duration. Neither the maximal rate nor the duration of CEF are different in the pgrl1 mutant compared to the wild type, disqualifying PGRL1 as the ferredoxin-plastoquinone oxidoreductase involved in the CEF mechanism

    The mechanism of cyclic electron flow.

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    Apart from the canonical light-driven linear electron flow (LEF) from water to CO2, numerous regulatory and alternative electron transfer pathways exist in chloroplasts. One of them is the cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I (CEF), contributing to photoprotection of both Photosystem I and II (PSI, PSII) and supplying extra ATP to fix atmospheric carbon. Nonetheless, CEF remains an enigma in the field of functional photosynthesis as we lack understanding of its pathway. Here, we address the discrepancies between functional and genetic/biochemical data in the literature and formulate novel hypotheses about the pathway and regulation of CEF based on recent structural and kinetic information

    Investigation of photocurrents resulting from a living unicellular algae suspension with quinones over time

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    International audiencePlants, algae, and some bacteria convert solar energy into chemical energy by using photosynthesis. In light of the current energy environment, many research strategies try to benefit from photosynthesis in order to generate usable photobioelectricity. Among all the strategies developed for transferring electrons from the photosynthetic chain to an outer collecting electrode, we recently implemented a method on a preparative scale (high surface electrode) based on a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii green algae suspension in the presence of exogenous quinones as redox mediators. While giving rise to an interesting performance (10-60 mA cm À2) in the course of one hour, this device appears to cause a slow decrease of the recorded photocurrent. In this paper, we wish to analyze and understand this gradual fall in performance in order to limit this issue in future applications. We thus first show that this kind of degradation could be related to over-irradiation conditions or side-effects of quinones depending on experimental conditions. We therefore built an empirical model involving a kinetic quenching induced by incubation with quinones, which is globally consistent with the experimental data provided by fluorescence measurements achieved after dark incubation of algae in the presence of quinones

    Redesigning the QA binding site of Photosystem II allows reduction of exogenous quinones

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    International audienceStrategies to harness photosynthesis from living organisms to generate electrical power have long been considered, yet efficiency remains low. Here, we aimed to reroute photosynthetic electron flow in photosynthetic organisms without compromising their phototrophic properties. We show that 2,6-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone (DMBQ) can be used as an electron mediator to assess the efficiency of mutations designed to engineer a novel electron donation pathway downstream of the primary electron acceptor QA of Photosystem (PS) II in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Through the use of structural prediction studies and a screen of site-directed PSII mutants we show that modifying the environment of the QA site increases the reduction rate of DMBQ. Truncating the C-terminus of the PsbT subunit protruding in the stroma provides evidence that shortening the distance between QA and DMBQ leads to sustained electron transfer to DMBQ, as confirmed by chronoamperometry, consistent with a bypass of the natural QA¬į‚ąí to QB pathway

    Electrochemical Harvesting of Photosynthetic Electrons from Unicellular Algae Population at the Preparative Scale by Using 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone

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    International audienceOxygenic photosynthesis is the process used by plants, cyanobacteria or algae to convert the solar energy into a chemical one from the carbon dioxide reduction and water oxidation. In the past years, many strategies were implemented to take benefits from the overall low yield of this process to extract photosynthetic electrons and thus produce a sustainable photocurrent. In practice, electrochemical tools were involved and the principle of electrons harvestings was related to the step of electron transfer between the photosynthetic organism and a collecting electrode. In this context, works involving an algae population in suspension were rather scarce and rather focus on the grafting of the photosynthetic machinery at the electrode surface. Based on our previous works, we report here the implementation of an electrochemical set-up at the preparative scale to produce photocurrents. An algae suspension, i.e. an intact biological system to ensure culture and growth, was involved in presence of a centimeter-sized carbon gauze as the collecting electrode. The spectroelectrochemical cell contains 16 mL of suspension of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant with an appropriate mediator (2,6-DCBQ). Under these conditions, stable photocurrents were recorded over 1 h whose magnitude depends on the quinone concentration and the light illumination

    L'énergie à découvert

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    L'√©nergie est devenue une question vitale pour les soci√©t√©s, le citoyen, l'humanit√© tout enti√®re. Sujet scientifique, √©conomique, politique et √©cologique majeur, elle suscite des d√©bats, parfois violents, sur les choix √† faire aujourd'hui et leurs cons√©quences pour l'avenir des hommes et de la plan√®te. Mais, alors que se tient le grand d√©bat national sur la transition √©nerg√©tique, comment se forger une opinion objective sans conna√ģtre les donn√©es scientifiques les plus compl√®tes sur les potentiels et les limites de chaque source d'√©nergie ? Ce livre les met enfin √† la disposition du public. L'√©nergie, qu'est-ce que c'est ? Quelles sont les grandes lois physiques qui la gouvernent ? Comment la produire, la transporter, la stocker ? Le solaire, la biomasse, l'√©olien, l'hydraulique sont-ils des solutions alternatives suffisantes ? Et quelle part leur r√©server √† l'avenir ? Les nombreux articles de ce livre (pr√®s de 130) proposent au citoyen des outils pour se faire une opinion face √† ces questions. Physiciens, chimistes, biologistes, g√©ophysiciens, environnementalistes, g√©ographes, √©conomistes, y pr√©cisent, chiffres et sch√©mas √† l'appui, la place respective des √©nergies fossiles, du nucl√©aire et des √©nergies renouvelables. Au-del√†, ils expliquent quelles sont les perspectives offertes par la science sur le mix √©nerg√©tique, le probl√®me du stockage, l'am√©lioration de nos usages de l'√©nergie, ses impacts environnementaux et sanitaires

    Diatom phytochromes reveal the existence of far-red-light-based sensing in the ocean

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    The absorption of visible light in aquatic environments has led to the common assumption that aquatic organisms sense and adapt to penetrative blue/green light wavelengths but show little or no response to the more attenuated red/far-red wavelengths. Here, we show that two marine diatom species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, possess a bona fide red/far-red light sensing phytochrome (DPH) that uses biliverdin as a chromophore and displays accentuated red-shifted absorbance peaks compared with other characterized plant and algal phytochromes. Exposure to both red and far-red light causes changes in gene expression in P. tricornutum, and the responses to far-red light disappear in DPH knockout cells, demonstrating that P. tricornutum DPH mediates far-red light signaling. The identification of DPH genes in diverse diatom species widely distributed along the water column further emphasizes the ecological significance of far-red light sensing, raising questions about the sources of far-red light. Our analyses indicate that, although far-red wavelengths from sunlight are only detectable at the ocean surface, chlorophyll fluorescence and Raman scattering can generate red/far-red photons in deeper layers. This study opens up novel perspectives on phytochrome-mediated far-red light signaling in the ocean and on the light sensing and adaptive capabilities of marine phototrophs
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