4,049 research outputs found

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background: Approximately 450 000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2·1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13·0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings: Of 63 093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11 848 (18·8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50·2%) of 11 476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49·8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3·1%) of 11 848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9·6 years (IQR 5·8-13·2). 10 099 (89·9%) of 11 235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10·1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5·2%) of 11 848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92·4%] of 10 202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48·0%] of 415). 3414 (31·6%) of 10 804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72·4%) of 10 428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5·00 mmol/L (IQR 4·05-6·08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50-75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation: Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life

    Tumor microenvironment in a minipig model of spinal cord glioma

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    Abstract Background Spinal cord glioma (SCG) is considered an orphan disease that lacks effective treatment options with margins that are surgically inaccessible and an overall paucity of literature on the topic. The tumor microenvironment is a critical factor to consider in treatment and modeling design, especially with respect to the unresectable tumor edge. Recently, our group developed a high-grade spinal cord glioma (SCG) model in Göttingen minipigs. Methods Immunofluorescence and ELISA were performed to explore the microenvironmental features and inflammation cytokines in this minipig SCG model. Protein carbonyl assay and GSH/GSSG assay were analyzed in the core and edge lesions in the minipig SCG model. The primary core and edge cells proliferation rate were shown in vitro, and the xenograft model in vivo. Results We identified an elevated Ki-67 proliferative index, vascular and pericyte markers, CD31 and desmin in the tumor edge as compared to the tumor core. In addition, we found that the tumor edge demonstrated increased pro-inflammatory and gliomagenic cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Furthermore, the mediation of oxidative stress is upregulated in the tumor edge. Hypoxic markers had statistically significant increased staining in the tumor core, but were notably still present in the tumor edge. The edge cells cultures derived from SCG biopsy also demonstrated an increased proliferative rate compared to core cell cultures in a xenotransplantation model. Conclusions Our study demonstrates heterogeneity in microenvironmental features in our minipig model of high-grade SCG, with a phenotype at the edge showing increased oxidative stress, proliferation, inflammatory cytokines, neovascularization, and decreased but present staining for hypoxic markers. These findings support the utility of this model as a means for investigating therapeutic approaches targeting the more aggressive and surgically unresectable tumor border

    Legionella anisa or Legionella bozemanii? Traditional and molecular techniques as support in the environmental surveillance of a hospital water network

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    Understanding the actual distribution of different Legionella species in water networks would help prevent outbreaks. Culture investigations followed by serological agglutination tests, with poly/monovalent antisera, still represent the gold standard for isolation and identification of Legionella strains. However, also MALDI-TOF and mip-gene sequencing are currently used. This study was conducted to genetically correlate strains of Legionella non pneumophila (L-np) isolated during environmental surveillance comparing different molecular techniques. Overall, 346 water samples were collected from the water system of four pavilions located in a hospital of the Apulia Region of Italy. Strains isolated from the samples were then identified by serological tests, MALDI-TOF, and mip-gene sequencing. Overall, 24.9% of water samples were positive for Legionella, among which the majority were Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) 1 (52.3%), followed by Lpn2-15 (20.9%), L-np (17.4%), Lpn1 + Lpn2-15 (7.1%), and L-np + Lpn1 (2.3%). Initially, L-np strains were identified as L. bozemanii by monovalent antiserum, while MALDI-TOF and mip-gene sequencing assigned them to L. anisa. More cold water than hot water samples were contaminated by L. anisa (p < 0.001). PFGE, RAPD, Rep-PCR, and SAU-PCR were performed to correlate L. anisa strains. Eleven out of 14 strains identified in all four pavilions showed 100% of similarity upon PFGE analysis. RAPD, Rep-PCR, and SAU-PCR showed greater discriminative power than PFGE

    Addendum to: A measurement of the K+ → π+μ+μ− decay

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    Science, Faculty ofTRIUMFNon UBCPhysics and Astronomy, Department ofReviewedFacultyResearche

    Harmonising the land-use flux estimates of global models and national inventories for 2000-2020

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    International audienceAs the focus of climate policy shifts from pledges to implementation, there is a growing need to track progress on climate change mitigation at the country level, particularly for the land-use sector. Despite new tools and models providing unprecedented monitoring opportunities, striking differences remain in estimations of anthropogenic land-use CO2 fluxes between, on the one hand, the national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) used to assess compliance with national climate targets under the Paris Agreement and, on the other hand, the Global Carbon Budget and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports, both based on global bookkeeping models (BMs). Recent studies have shown that these differences are mainly due to inconsistent definitions of anthropogenic CO2 fluxes in managed forests. Countries assume larger areas of forest to be managed than BMs do, due to a broader definition of managed land in NGHGIs. Additionally, the fraction of the land sink caused by indirect effects of human-induced environmental change (e.g. fertilisation effect on vegetation growth due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration) on managed lands is treated as non-anthropogenic by BMs but as anthropogenic in most NGHGIs. We implement an approach that adds the CO2 sink caused by environmental change in countries' managed forests (estimated by 16 dynamic global vegetation models, DGVMs) to the land-use fluxes from three BMs. This sum is conceptually more comparable to NGHGIs and is thus expected to be quantitatively more similar. Our analysis uses updated and more comprehensive data from NGHGIs than previous studies and provides model results at a greater level of disaggregation in terms of regions, countries and land categories (i.e. forest land, deforestation, organic soils, other land uses). Our results confirm a large difference (6.7 GtCO2 yr-1) in global land-use CO2 fluxes between the ensemble mean of the BMs, which estimate a source of 4.8 GtCO2 yr-1 for the period 2000-2020, and NGHGIs, which estimate a sink of -1.9 GtCO2 yr-1 in the same period. Most of the gap is found on forest land (3.5 GtCO2 yr-1), with differences also for deforestation (2.4 GtCO2 yr-1), for fluxes from other land uses (1.0 GtCO2 yr-1) and to a lesser extent for fluxes from organic soils (0.2 GtCO2 yr-1). By adding the DGVM ensemble mean sink arising from environmental change in managed forests (-6.4 GtCO2 yr-1) to BM estimates, the gap between BMs and NGHGIs becomes substantially smaller both globally (residual gap: 0.3 GtCO2 yr-1) and in most regions and countries. However, some discrepancies remain and deserve further investigation. For example, the BMs generally provide higher emissions from deforestation than NGHGIs and, when adjusted with the sink in managed forests estimated by DGVMs, yield a sink that is often greater than NGHGIs. In summary, this study provides a blueprint for harmonising the estimations of anthropogenic land-use fluxes, allowing for detailed comparisons between global models and national inventories at global, regional and country levels. This is crucial to increase confidence in land-use emissions estimates, support investments in land-based mitigation strategies and assess the countries' collective progress under the Global Stocktake of the Paris Agreement. Data from this study are openly available online via the Zenodo portal (Grassi et al., 2023) at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7650360

    A search for the K+ → μ−νe+e+ decay

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    A search for the K+→μ−νe+e+ decay, forbidden within the Standard Model by either lepton number or lepton flavour conservation depending on the flavour of the emitted neutrino, has been performed using the dataset collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2016–2018. An upper limit of 8.1×10−11 is obtained for the decay branching fraction at 90% CL, improving by a factor of 250 over the previous search

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background Approximately 450 000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2·1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13·0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings Of 63 093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11 848 (18·8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50·2%) of 11 476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49·8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3·1%) of 11 848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9·6 years (IQR 5·8–13·2). 10 099 (89·9%) of 11 235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10·1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5·2%) of 11 848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92·4%] of 10 202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48·0%] of 415). 3414 (31·6%) of 10 804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72·4%) of 10 428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5·00 mmol/L (IQR 4·05–6·08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50–75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life. Funding Pfizer, Amgen, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Sanofi–Aventis, Daiichi Sankyo, and Regeneron

    Laparoscopic Cytoreduction Combined with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Peritoneal Surface Malignancies (PSM): Italian PSM Oncoteam Evidence and Literature Review

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    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has gained increasing acceptance in clinical practice. Performing CRS and HIPEC laparoscopically represents a challenging and intriguing technical evolution. However, the experiences are limited, and the evidence is low. This retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with laparoscopic CRS-HIPEC within the Italian Peritoneal Surface Malignancies Oncoteam. Clinical, perioperative, and follow-up data were extracted and collected on prospectively maintained databases. We added a systematic review according to the PRISMA method for English-language articles through April 2022 using the keywords laparoscopic, hyperthermic, HIPEC, and chemotherapy. From 2016 to 2022, fourteen patients were treated with Lap-CRS-HIPEC with curative intent within the Italian centers. No conversion to open was observed. The median duration of surgery was 487.5 min. The median Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) was 3, and complete cytoreduction was achieved in all patients. Two patients (14.3%) had major postoperative complications, one requiring reintervention. After a median follow-up of 16.9 months, eleven patients were alive without disease (78.6%), two patients developed recurrence (14.3%), and one patient died for unrelated causes (7.1%). The literature review confirmed these results. In conclusion, current evidence shows that Lap-CRS-HIPEC is feasible, safe, and associated with a favorable outcome in selected patients. An accurate patient selection will continue to be paramount in choosing this treatment
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