21,813 research outputs found

    Secondary forest buffers the effects of fragmentation on aerial insectivorous bat species following 30 years of passive forest restoration

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    Passive forest restoration can buffer the effects of habitat loss on biodiversity. We acoustically surveyed aerial insectivorous bats in a whole‚Äźecosystem fragmentation experiment in the Brazilian Amazon over a 2‚Äźyear period, across 33 sites, comprising continuous old‚Äźgrowth forest, remnant fragments, and regenerating secondary forest matrix. We analyzed the activity of 10 species/sonotypes to investigate occupancy across habitat types and responses to fragment size and interior‚Äźedge‚Äźmatrix (IEM) disturbance gradients. Employing a multiscale approach, we investigated guild (edge foragers, forest specialists, flexible forest foragers, and open space specialists) and species‚Äźlevel responses to vegetation structure and forest cover, edge, and patch density across six spatial scales (0.5‚Äď3 km). We found species‚Äźspecific habitat occupancy patterns and nuanced responses to fragment size and the IEM disturbance gradient. For example, Furipterus horrens had lower activity in secondary forest sites and the interior and edge of the smallest fragments (1 and 10 ha) compared to continuous forest, and only two species (Pteronotus spp.) showed no habitat preference and no significant responses across the IEM and fragment size gradients. Only the Molossus sonotype responded negatively to vegetation structure. We uncovered no negative influence of forest cover or edge density at guild or species‚Äźlevel. Our results indicate that reforestation can buffer the negative effects of fragmentation and although these effects can still be detected in some species, generally aerial insectivorous bats appear to be in recovery after 30 years of passive forest restoration. Our findings reinforce the need to protect regenerating forests while conserving vast expanses of old‚Äźgrowth forest

    sj-tiff-1-jet-10.1177_15266028241229005 ‚Äď Supplemental material for Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Using Fenestrated and Branched Endovascular Grafts for High-Risk Patients: Evolving yet Safe

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    Supplemental material, sj-tiff-1-jet-10.1177_15266028241229005 for Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Using Fenestrated and Branched Endovascular Grafts for High-Risk Patients: Evolving yet Safe by Daniyal N. Mahmood, Rodolfo Rocha, Maral Ouzounian, Kong Teng Tan, Samantha M. Forbes, Jennifer C-Y. Chung and Thomas F. Lindsay in Journal of Endovascular Therapy</p

    Measurement of the low-energy antitriton inelastic cross section

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    Opportunities in game-based stroke rehabilitation

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    Stroke is the most common cause of long-Term disability of adults in developed countries. Continuous participation in rehabilitation can alleviate some of tis consequences, and support recover of stroke patients. However, physical rehabilitation requires commitment to tedious exercises routines overlengthy periods of time, which often causes patients to drop out of therapy routines. In this context, game-based stroke rehabilitation has the potential to address two important barriers: accessibility of rehabilitation, and patient motovation. This paper provides a summary of design efforts in human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research to support stroke rehabilitation. Based on our review, we discuss challenges and opportunities in game-based stroke rehabilitation and outline areas for future work that need to be addressed to offer engaging game-based stroke rehabilitation. √É‚Äö√ā¬© 2014 IEEE.</p

    Understanding and predicting process performance variations of a balanced manufacturing line at Bosch

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    Industry 4.0 takes advantage of data-driven approaches to improve manufacturing processes. Root cause analysis (RCA) techniques are naturally required to support the identification of reasons for (in)efficiency processes. However, RCA methods tend to be sensitive to data perturbations and outliers, compromising the confidence of the results and demanding the implementation of robust RCA approaches. Here, methods of graph theory (queue directed graphs), operational research (multi-directional efficiency analysis), machine learning (extreme gradient boosting), and game theory (Shapley analysis) are merged together, in order to obtain a robust approach that is able to benchmark the workers acting on a discrete manufacturing process, determine the relevance level of process variables regarding a worker belonging to the (in)efficient group, and predict the worker performance variation into its next working session. A use case at Bosch ThermoTechnology is analysed to show the methodology’s applicability.publishe

    A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the northern portion of the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Abstract Brachycephalus is a genus of small ground-dwelling anurans, endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recent molecular analyses have corroborated the monophyly of three species groups within this genus (B. ephippium, B. ephippium, and B. ephippium). In the meantime, the genus has been targeted as a group with recent taxonomic issues owing to its interspecific morphological similarity and genetic conservatism. Herein, we describe a new species of Brachycephalus from the northern portion of Serra do Mar mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It belongs to the B. ephippium species group, exhibiting moderate hyperossification of the skull and vertebral column. The new species can be distinguished from all other congeners based on morphological, acoustic, and molecular data. Furthermore, we provide information on osteology and natural history of the new species

    Climate tipping point interactions and cascades: a review

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    Climate tipping elements are large-scale subsystems of the Earth that may transgress critical thresholds (tipping points) under ongoing global warming, with substantial impacts on the biosphere and human societies. Frequently studied examples of such tipping elements include the Greenland Ice Sheet, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), permafrost, monsoon systems, and the Amazon rainforest. While recent scientific efforts have improved our knowledge about individual tipping elements, the interactions between them are less well understood. Also, the potential of individual tipping events to induce additional tipping elsewhere or stabilize other tipping elements is largely unknown. Here, we map out the current state of the literature on the interactions between climate tipping elements and review the influences between them. To do so, we gathered evidence from model simulations, observations, and conceptual understanding, as well as examples of paleoclimate reconstructions where multi-component or spatially propagating transitions were potentially at play. While uncertainties are large, we find indications that many of the interactions between tipping elements are destabilizing. Therefore, we conclude that tipping elements should not only be studied in isolation, but also more emphasis has to be put on potential interactions. This means that tipping cascades cannot be ruled out on centennial to millennial timescales at global warming levels between 1.5 and 2.0‚ÄČ‚ąėC or on shorter timescales if global warming surpassed 2.0‚ÄČ‚ąėC. At these higher levels of global warming, tipping cascades may then include fast tipping elements such as the AMOC or the Amazon rainforest. To address crucial knowledge gaps in tipping element interactions, we propose four strategies combining observation-based approaches, Earth system modeling expertise, computational advances, and expert knowledge

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations1,2,3,4,5,6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories7, we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees

    Biopreservation in Flours and Bread

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    This chapter gives an updated perspective on biopreservation methods, current applications and perspectives in flours and baking goods. The main focus includes the promotion of food safety and hygiene, food safety contaminants, preventive control, ropiness and mold spoilage as well as chemical contamination of flours and bread and related health, and bioprocesses towards quality, nutritional value, sensory attributes and shelf-life improvement

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

    No full text
    International audienceAbstract Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations 1‚Äď6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories 7 , we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees
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