246 research outputs found

    Rare predicted loss-of-function variants of type I IFN immunity genes are associated with life-threatening COVID-19

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    BackgroundWe previously reported that impaired type I IFN activity, due to inborn errors of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity or to autoantibodies against type I IFN, account for 15-20% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients. Therefore, the determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 remain to be identified in similar to 80% of cases.MethodsWe report here a genome-wide rare variant burden association analysis in 3269 unvaccinated patients with life-threatening COVID-19, and 1373 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals without pneumonia. Among the 928 patients tested for autoantibodies against type I IFN, a quarter (234) were positive and were excluded.ResultsNo gene reached genome-wide significance. Under a recessive model, the most significant gene with at-risk variants was TLR7, with an OR of 27.68 (95%CI 1.5-528.7, P=1.1x10(-4)) for biochemically loss-of-function (bLOF) variants. We replicated the enrichment in rare predicted LOF (pLOF) variants at 13 influenza susceptibility loci involved in TLR3-dependent type I IFN immunity (OR=3.70[95%CI 1.3-8.2], P=2.1x10(-4)). This enrichment was further strengthened by (1) adding the recently reported TYK2 and TLR7 COVID-19 loci, particularly under a recessive model (OR=19.65[95%CI 2.1-2635.4], P=3.4x10(-3)), and (2) considering as pLOF branchpoint variants with potentially strong impacts on splicing among the 15 loci (OR=4.40[9%CI 2.3-8.4], P=7.7x10(-8)). Finally, the patients with pLOF/bLOF variants at these 15 loci were significantly younger (mean age [SD]=43.3 [20.3] years) than the other patients (56.0 [17.3] years; P=1.68x10(-5)).ConclusionsRare variants of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I IFN immunity genes can underlie life-threatening COVID-19, particularly with recessive inheritance, in patients under 60 years old

    Guideline adherence and survival of patients with candidaemia in Europe: results from the ECMM Candida III multinational European observational cohort study

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    Background: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) collected data on epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes of patients with culture-proven candidaemia across Europe to assess how adherence to guideline recommendations is associated with outcomes. Methods: In this observational cohort study, 64 participating hospitals located in 20 European countries, with the number of eligible hospitals per country determined by population size, included the first ten consecutive adults with culture-proven candidaemia after July 1, 2018, and entered data into the ECMM Candida Registry (FungiScope CandiReg). We assessed ECMM Quality of Clinical Candidaemia Management (EQUAL Candida) scores reflecting adherence to recommendations of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. Findings: 632 patients with candidaemia were included from 64 institutions. Overall 90-day mortality was 43% (265/617), and increasing age, intensive care unit admission, point increases in the Charlson comorbidity index score, and Candida tropicalis as causative pathogen were independent baseline predictors of mortality in Cox regression analysis. EQUAL Candida score remained an independent predictor of mortality in the multivariable Cox regression analyses after adjusting for the baseline predictors, even after restricting the analysis to patients who survived for more than 7 days after diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1·08 [95% CI 1·04-1·11; p<0·0001] in patients with a central venous catheter and 1·09 [1·05-1·13; p<0·0001] in those without one, per one score point decrease). Median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (IQR 4-30) after diagnosis of candidaemia and was extended specifically for completion of parenteral therapy in 100 (16%) of 621 patients. Initial echinocandin treatment was associated with lower overall mortality and longer duration of hospital stay among survivors than treatment with other antifungals. Interpretation: Although overall mortality in patients with candidaemia was high, our study indicates that adherence to clinical guideline recommendations, reflected by higher EQUAL Candida scores, might increase survival. New antifungals, with similar activity as current echinocandins but with longer half-lives or oral bioavailability, are needed to reduce duration of hospital stay. Funding: Scynexis

    Guideline adherence and survival of patients with candidaemia in Europe : results from the ECMM Candida III multinational European observational cohort study

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    International audienceBackground: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) collected data on epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes of patients with culture-proven candidaemia across Europe to assess how adherence to guideline recommendations is associated with outcomes.Methods: In this observational cohort study, 64 participating hospitals located in 20 European countries, with the number of eligible hospitals per country determined by population size, included the first ten consecutive adults with culture-proven candidaemia after July 1, 2018, and entered data into the ECMM Candida Registry (FungiScope CandiReg). We assessed ECMM Quality of Clinical Candidaemia Management (EQUAL Candida) scores reflecting adherence to recommendations of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines.Findings: 632 patients with candidaemia were included from 64 institutions. Overall 90-day mortality was 43% (265/617), and increasing age, intensive care unit admission, point increases in the Charlson comorbidity index score, and Candida tropicalis as causative pathogen were independent baseline predictors of mortality in Cox regression analysis. EQUAL Candida score remained an independent predictor of mortality in the multivariable Cox regression analyses after adjusting for the baseline predictors, even after restricting the analysis to patients who survived for more than 7 days after diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1·08 [95% CI 1·04-1·11; p<0·0001] in patients with a central venous catheter and 1·09 [1·05-1·13; p<0·0001] in those without one, per one score point decrease). Median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (IQR 4-30) after diagnosis of candidaemia and was extended specifically for completion of parenteral therapy in 100 (16%) of 621 patients. Initial echinocandin treatment was associated with lower overall mortality and longer duration of hospital stay among survivors than treatment with other antifungals.Interpretation: Although overall mortality in patients with candidaemia was high, our study indicates that adherence to clinical guideline recommendations, reflected by higher EQUAL Candida scores, might increase survival. New antifungals, with similar activity as current echinocandins but with longer half-lives or oral bioavailability, are needed to reduce duration of hospital stay

    Doravirine plus lamivudine two-drug regimen as maintenance antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV: a French observational study

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    International audienceBackground: Two-drug regimens based on integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and boosted PIs have entered recommended ART. However, INSTIs and boosted PIs may not be suitable for all patients. We aimed to report our experience with doravirine/lamivudine as maintenance therapy in people living with HIV (PLWH) followed in French HIV settings.Methods: This observational study enrolled all adults who initiated doravirine/lamivudine between 1 September 2019 and 31 October 2021, in French HIV centres participating in the Dat'AIDS cohort. The primary outcome was the rate of virological success (plasma HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL) at Week (W)48. Secondary outcomes included: rate of treatment discontinuation for non-virological reasons, evolution of CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio over follow-up.Results: Fifty patients were included, with 34 (68%) men; median age: 58 years (IQR 51-62), ART duration: 20 years (13-23), duration of virological suppression: 14 years (8-19), CD4 count: 784 cells/mm3 (636-889). Prior to switching, all had plasma HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL. All but three were naive to doravirine, and 36 (72%) came from a three-drug regimen. Median follow-up was 79 weeks (IQR 60-96). Virological success rate at W48 was 98.0% (95% CI 89.4-99.9). One virological failure occurred at W18 (HIV-RNA = 101 copies/mL) in a patient who briefly discontinued doravirine/lamivudine due to intense nightmares; there was no resistance at baseline and no resistance emergence. There were three strategy discontinuations for adverse events (digestive disorders: n = 2; insomnia: n = 1). There was no significant change in CD4/CD8 ratio, while CD4 T cell count significantly increased.Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that doravirine/lamivudine regimens can maintain high levels of viral suppression in highly ART-experienced PLWH with long-term viral suppression, and good CD4+ T cell count

    A conceptual framework for nomenclatural stability and validity of medically important fungi: a proposed global consensus guideline for fungal name changes supported by ABP, ASM, CLSI, ECMM, ESCMID-EFISG, EUCAST-AFST, FDLC, IDSA, ISHAM, MMSA, and MSGERC.

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    The rapid pace of name changes of medically important fungi is creating challenges for clinical laboratories and clinicians involved in patient care. We describe two sources of name change which have different drivers, at the species versus the genus level. Some suggestions are made here to reduce the number of name changes. We urge taxonomists to provide diagnostic markers of taxonomic novelties. Given the instability of phylogenetic trees due to variable taxon sampling, we advocate to maintain genera at the largest possible size. Reporting of identified species in complexes or series should where possible comprise both the name of the overarching species and that of the molecular sibling, often cryptic species. Because the use of different names for the same species will be unavoidable for many years to come, an open access online database of the names of all medically important fungi, with proper nomenclatural designation and synonymy, is essential. We further recommend that while taxonomic discovery continues, the adaptation of new name changes by clinical laboratories and clinicians be reviewed routinely by a standing committee for validation and stability over time, with reference to an open access database, wherein reasons for changes are listed in a transparent way

    What Is New in Pulmonary Mucormycosis?

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    Mucormycosis is a rare but life-threatening fungal infection due to molds of the order Mucorales. The incidence has been increasing over recent decades. Worldwide, pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) presents in the lungs, which are the third main location for the infection after the rhino-orbito-cerebral (ROC) areas and the skin. The main risk factors for PM include hematological malignancies and solid organ transplantation, whereas ROC infections classically are classically favored by diabetes mellitus. The differences between the ROC and pulmonary locations are possibly explained by the activation of different mammalian receptors-GRP78 in nasal epithelial cells and integrin ÎČ1 in alveolar epithelial cells-in response to Mucorales. Alveolar macrophages and neutrophils play a key role in the host defense against Mucorales. The diagnosis of PM relies on CT scans, cultures, PCR tests, and histology. The reversed halo sign is an early, but very suggestive, sign of PM in neutropenic patients. Recently, the serum PCR test showed a very encouraging performance for the diagnosis and follow-up of mucormycosis. Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice for first-line therapy, together with correction of underlying disease and surgery when feasible. After a stable or partial response, the step-down treatment includes oral isavuconazole or posaconazole delayed release tablets until a complete response is achieved. Secondary prophylaxis should be discussed when there is any risk of relapse, such as the persistence of neutropenia or the prolonged use of high-dose immunosuppressive therapy. Despite these novelties, the mortality rate from PM remains higher than 50%. Therefore, future research must define the place for combination therapy and adjunctive treatments, while the development of new treatments is necessary

    Mycobacterial infections in adults with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplants: guidelines from the 8th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia

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    International audienceMycobacterial infections, both tuberculosis and nontuberculous, are more common in patients with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients than in the general population—although these infections remain rare. Mycobacterial infections pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The management of mycobacterial infections is particularly complicated for patients in haematology because of the many drug–drug interactions between antimycobacterial drugs and haematological and immunosuppressive treatments. The management of mycobacterial infections must also consider the effect of delaying haematological management. We surveyed the management practices for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in haematology centres in Europe. We then conducted a meticulous review of the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of LTBI, tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections among patients in haematology, and we formulated clinical guidelines according to standardised European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL) methods. In this Review, we summarise the available literature and the recommendations of ECIL 8 for managing mycobacterial infections in patients with haematological malignancies

    Combined Bacterial Meningitis and Infective Endocarditis: When Should We Search for the Other When Either One is Diagnosed?

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    Auteurs groupes collaboratifs AEPEI study group & the COMBAT study groupInternational audienc
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