258 research outputs found

    A five-year systematic review and meta-analysis study on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains in Iran

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    Background and Objectives: One of the most prevalent drug-resistant bacteria is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epi-dermidis (MRSE) causing healthcare infections. Previously, a meta-analysis study on the frequency of MRSE was conducted from Mar 2006 to Jan 2016 in Iran. The present study aimed to evaluate the changes in this prevalence in the last 5 years in different cities in Iran.Materials and Methods: Published articles on the frequency of MRSE were collected from the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases from the beginning of 2016 to the end of 2020. Of the 503 records identified, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria, and their extracted data were analyzed using comprehensive meta-analysis version 2.0 (Biostat).Results: The analysis showed that the frequency of MRSE has decreased significantly in the last five years and reached 60.8 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 54.2-66.9 among culture-positive cases of S. epidermidis in Iran.Conclusion: The noticeable reduction in the prevalence of MRSE in Iran could be due to the improvement of infection con-trol programs and interruption of the pathogen transmission cycle. Another influential reason is the significant reduction in methicillin prescriptions by physicians for infections caused by staphylococci

    2023 ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension Endorsed by the European Renal Association (ERA) and the International Society of Hypertension (ISH)

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    DOCUMENT REVIEWERS: Luis Alcocer (Mexico), Christina Antza (Greece), Mustafa Arici (Turkey), Eduardo Barbosa (Brazil), Adel Berbari (Lebanon), Luís Bronze (Portugal), John Chalmers (Australia), Tine De Backer (Belgium), Alejandro de la Sierra (Spain), Kyriakos Dimitriadis (Greece), Dorota Drozdz (Poland), Béatrice Duly-Bouhanick (France), Brent M. Egan (USA), Serap Erdine (Turkey), Claudio Ferri (Italy), Slavomira Filipova (Slovak Republic), Anthony Heagerty (UK), Michael Hecht Olsen (Denmark), Dagmara Hering (Poland), Sang Hyun Ihm (South Korea), Uday Jadhav (India), Manolis Kallistratos (Greece), Kazuomi Kario (Japan), Vasilios Kotsis (Greece), Adi Leiba (Israel), Patricio López-Jaramillo (Colombia), Hans-Peter Marti (Norway), Terry McCormack (UK), Paolo Mulatero (Italy), Dike B. Ojji (Nigeria), Sungha Park (South Korea), Priit Pauklin (Estonia), Sabine Perl (Austria), Arman Postadzhian (Bulgaria), Aleksander Prejbisz (Poland), Venkata Ram (India), Ramiro Sanchez (Argentina), Markus Schlaich (Australia), Alta Schutte (Australia), Cristina Sierra (Spain), Sekib Sokolovic (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Jonas Spaak (Sweden), Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios (Greece), Bruno Trimarco (Italy), Thomas Unger (The Netherlands), Bert-Jan van den Born (The Netherlands), Anna Vachulova (Slovak Republic), Agostino Virdis (Italy), Jiguang Wang (China), Ulrich Wenzel (Germany), Paul Whelton (USA), Jiri Widimsky (Czech Republic), Jacek Wolf (Poland), Grégoire Wuerzner (Switzerland), Eugene Yang (USA), Yuqing Zhang (China).</p

    Global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risks, 1990-2022

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    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk–outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01–4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0–116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3–48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1–45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60–3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8–54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36–1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5–41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6–28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8–25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9–42·8] and 33·3% [25·8–42·0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Atrial fibrillation detection with long-term continuous Holter ECG recording in patients with high cardiovascular risk and clinical palpitations : the prospective after study

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    Aim: New technologic tools for continuous ECG monitoring have been developed to detect and treat atrial fibrillation (AF) in specific populations with high cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the prevalence and the management of AF diagnosed in patients with high cardiovascular risk and non-documented clinical palpitation undergoing systematic 14-day continuous ECG–Holter monitoring. Methods: Patients were prospectively enrolled from December 2019 to December 2021 in this multicentre study, sponsored by the French National College of Cardiology. Patients met the following criteria: CHA2DS2VASc score ≥ 2 in males and ≥ 3 in females and clinical palpitations without previously documented arrhythmia. Enrolled patients underwent a continuous 14-day Holter–ECG monitoring for arrhythmia detection. Results: Among the 336 included patients, 39% were male, 75% were greater than 65 years of age and 46.5% had suffered a prior stroke. AF was detected in 14% of patients, among which 23.4% were detected in the first 24 h of monitoring. Finally, age ≥ 65 years (p = 0.037) was significantly associated with AF, as well as male gender (p = 0.023) and a lower rate of antiplatelet therapy (p = 0.018). Patients with diagnosed AF had a prescription of anticoagulation therapy in 90%. Antiarrhythmic drugs were administered in 90% of AF patients and 13% underwent AF ablation. Conclusions: The systematic AF screening of patients with palpitations and high cardiovascular risk resulted in a diagnostic yield of AF in 14% of the population with a 14-day continuous ECG–Holter monitor. This strategy resulted in the prescription of anticoagulation and antiarrhythmic therapy in 90% of the AF detected population

    What is the impact of blood pressure on neurological symptoms and the risk of ESKD in primary and secondary thrombotic microangiopathies based on clinical presentation: a retrospective study.

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    The impact of blood pressure on neurological symptoms and risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is unknown in primary and secondary thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs). We measured baseline systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP in consecutive 563 patients with adjudicated primary and secondary TMAs, and assessed its association with the risk of ESKD. Normal BP, grade 1, 2 and 3 hypertension were present in 243 (43.1%), 132 (23.4%), 101 (17.9%) and 88 (15.6%), respectively. Significant BP differences were noted in relation to the cause of TMA: highest BP values were found in patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS), pregnancy, transplantation and auto-immune-related TMAs. Normal BP or grade 1 hypertension was found in 17/18 (94.4%) patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic patients (only 1/18 (5.6%) had a SBP value&gt;150 mmHg). In contrast, BP values could not differentiate isolated "essential" malignant hypertension (MH) from MH associated with aHUS (isolated MH (n=15): BP (median (IQR)): 220 (182-249)/132 (101-150) mmHg; MH with aHUS (n=5): BP: 223 (196-245)/131 (111-144) mmHg). The risk of vigilance disturbances (6.9%, 15.0%, 25.0%, respectively), epileptic seizures (1.5%, 4.0%, 12.5%, respectively) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (0.76%, 2.97%, 6.82%, respectively) increased with increasing baseline BP values from grade 1 to grade 3 hypertension. ESKD occurred in 35/563 (6.2%) patients (1.23%, 2.27%, 11.9% and 19.3% of patients with normal BP, grade 1, 2 and 3 hypertension, respectively). As compared to patients with normal BP (&lt;120/139 mmHg), grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension were associated with a greater risk of ESKD in univariate (OR: 1.91 [0.83-4.40], 13.2 [3.56-48.9] and 34.8 [9.31-130], respectively) and multivariate (OR: 0.89 [0.30-2.69], 7.00 [1.57-31.3] and 19.7 [4.53-85.2], respectively) analyses. The association between BP and the risk of ESRD was unchanged after adjustment on eculizumab use (OR: 3.46 [1.41-8.49], 17.7 [4.44-70.0] and 70.6 [8.61-579], respectively). Patients with MH, regardless of its cause, had a greater risk of ESKD (OR: 26.4 [10.0-69.8] vs other patients). Baseline BP differs in primary and secondary TMAs. High BP reduces the neurological tolerance of TMAs and is a powerful independent risk factor of ESKD, even after adjustment on TMA's cause

    How Foreign Language Enjoyment acts as a buoy for sagging motivation: A longitudinal investigation

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    The current study contributes to the recent debate on the question whether learner emotions can be intrinsically motivating or whether they are no more than diffuse action tendencies (Dörnyei 2020). Adopting a longitudinal approach, we combined repeated ANOVAs and mixed effects modeling to capture interactions between Language Enjoyment (FLE) and its three dimensions, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Attitudes/Motivation (AM) and its four dimensions over the course of one semester. Participants were 360 FL learners of English, German, French and Spanish in a Kuwaiti university. FLE (and the dimensions FLE Personal and FLE Social) and FLCA remained stable over time but FLE Teacher decreased significantly. Levels of AM also decreased significantly and, more specifically, the dimensions Motivation and Attitudes toward the Learning Situation. Mixed effects modeling analyses revealed that FLE (including FLE Personal and FLE Social) and FLCA had medium effects on the AM dimensions. Significant interaction effects were found for FLE Teacher and Time for the AM dimensions. We argue that high FLE can act as a buoy for sagging motivation and thus become intrinsically motivating

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% 47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% 32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% 27.9-42.8] and 33.3% 25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019