541 research outputs found

    The role of the osteoplastic flap in the endoscopic era : a retrospective multicentre experience on revision surgery

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    Objective. To retrospectively review the experience of five tertiary-care university hospitals on frontal sinus revision surgery with osteoplastic flap (OPF). Methods. Descriptive analysis of patients who underwent frontal sinus surgery with OPF after one or more endoscopic procedures for benign and inflammatory pathologies from 2000 to 2022. Clinical charts were reviewed for demographics, indications, clinical presen-tation, previous frontal procedures, OPF technique and outcomes. Results. Of the 124 patients who underwent an OPF procedure, 33 met inclusion criteria. With a mean of 2.1 previous endoscopic surgeries, Draf III was the most common former procedure. In 30 (91%) cases OPF was part of a combined procedure. The most common indications were inverted papilloma (61%), mucocele (9%) and chronic rhinosinusitis (6%). Frontal outflow stenosis (36%) and mucocele (9%) were the most frequent complications observed. Improvement of overall symptoms and patient satisfaction after the OPF procedure were recorded. Conclusions. Even in the endoscopic era, OPF still represents a paramount procedure that should be included in the rhino-surgeon’s armamentarium, in particular in patients with challenging pathologies and anatomy when previous endoscopic endonasal attempts have failed

    Exploratory Study on Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials in Long COVID-19 and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Common Pathway?

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    People affected by the Long COVID-19 (LC) syndrome often show clinical manifestations that are similar to those observed in patients with mild cognitive impairments (MCI), such as olfactory dysfunction (OD), brain fog, and cognitive and attentional diseases. This study aimed to investigate the chemosensory-evoked related potentials (CSERP) in LC and MCI to understand if there is a common pathway for the similarity of symptoms associated with these disorders. Eighteen LC patients (mean age 53; s.d. = 7), 12 patients diagnosed with MCI (mean age 67; s.d. = 6), and 10 healthy control subjects (mean age 66; s.d. = 5, 7) were recruited for this exploratory study. All of them performed a chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP) task with the administration of trigeminal stimulations (e.g., the odorants cinnamaldehyde and eucalyptus). Study results highlighted that MCI and LC showed reduced N1 amplitude, particularly in the left frontoparietal network, involved in working memory and attentional deficits, and a reduction of P3 latency in LC. This study lays the foundations for evaluating aspects of LC as a process that could trigger long-term functional alterations, and CSERPs could be considered valid biomarkers for assessing the progress of OD and an indicator of other impairments (e.g., attentional and cognitive impairments), as they occur in MCI

    The Effect of Isotonic Saline Nasal Lavages in Improving Symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Case-Control Study

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    Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mainly colonizes nasopharynx. In upper airways acute infections, e.g., the common cold, saline nasal irrigations have a significant efficacy in reducing symptoms. The present study aimed to test the efficacy of nasal lavages in upper airways symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A series of consecutive adult subjects who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from December 2020 to February 2021 performed daily nasal lavages with saline solution (Lavonase®—Purling, Lugo di Romagna, Italy) for 12 days, starting on the day after the SARS-CoV-2 positive swab. A control group included a historical series of patients who were infected in February-March 2020 and who did not perform lavages. An ad hoc questionnaire regarding symptoms was administered to each subjects at base-line and 10 days after diagnosis (i.e., on the same day of the control swab) in both cases and controls. Results: A total of 140 subjects were enrolled. 68 participants in the treatment group and 72 in the control group were included. 90% of respondents declared the lavages were simple to use and 70% declared they were satisfied. Symptoms of blocked nose, runny nose, or sneezing decreased by an average of 24.7% after the treatment. Blocked nose and sneezing increased in the same period of time in the control group. Ears and eyes symptoms, anosmia/ageusia symptoms, and infection duration (10.53 days in the treatment group and 10.48 days in the control group) didn't vary significantly among the two groups. Conclusion: Nasal lavages resulted to significantly decrease nasal symptoms in newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 patients. These devices proved to be well-tolerated and easy to be used. Further studies on a larger number of subjects are needed in order to possibly confirm these preliminary results

    Natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES): A strategy to improve the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds in a ready-to-use extract.

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    This study investigated whether a ready-to-use extract obtained using a natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) affects the pharmacokinetic profile of blueberry phenolic compounds compared to organic solvent (SORG)-extracted compounds. SORG extract was administered as an aqueous solution after solvent removal. Wistar rats received a single dose of crude extract of blueberry obtained using NADES (CE-NADES) or SORG (CE-SORG), followed by LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of blood and cecal feces. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that CE-NADES increased the bioavailability of anthocyanins by 140% compared to CE-SORG. CE-NADES increased the stability of phenolic compounds during in vitro digestion by delaying gastric chyme neutralization. These results suggest that besides being an eco-friendly solvent for the extraction of phytochemicals, choline chloride:glycerol:citric acid-based NADES can be used as a ready-to-use vehicle for increasing oral absorption of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins

    Saliva proteomics as fluid signature of inflammatory and immune‐mediated skin diseases

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    Saliva is easy to access, non‐invasive and a useful source of information useful for the diagnosis of serval inflammatory and immune‐mediated diseases. Following the advent of genomic technologies and ‐omic research, studies based on saliva testing have rapidly increased and human salivary proteome has been partially characterized. As a proteomic protocol to analyze the whole saliva proteome is not currently available, the most common aim of the proteomic analysis is to discriminate between physiological and pathological conditions. The salivary proteome has been initially investigated in several diseases: oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia, chronic graft‐versus‐host disease, and Sjögren’s syndrome. Otherwise, salivary proteomics studies in the dermatological field are still in the initial phase, thus the aim of this review is to collect the best research evidence on the role of saliva proteomics analysis in immune‐mediated skin diseases to understand the direction of research in this field. The results of PRISMA analysis reported herein suggest that human saliva analysis could provide significant data for the diagnosis and prognosis of several immune‐mediated and inflammatory skin diseases in the next future. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Age-dependent transition from islet insulin hypersecretion to hyposecretion in mice with the long QT-syndrome loss-of-function mutation Kcnq1-A340V

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    Abstract Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in KCNQ1, encoding the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv7.1, lead to long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1). LQT1 patients also present with post-prandial hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycaemia. In contrast, KCNQ1 polymorphisms are associated with diabetes, and LQTS patients have a higher prevalence of diabetes. We developed a mouse model with a LoF Kcnq1 mutation using CRISPR-Cas9 and hypothesized that this mouse model would display QT prolongation, increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and allow for interrogation of Kv7.1 function in islets. Mice were characterized by electrocardiography and oral glucose tolerance tests. Ex vivo, islet glucose-induced insulin release was measured, and beta-cell area quantified by immunohistochemistry. Homozygous mice had QT prolongation. Ex vivo, glucose-stimulated insulin release was increased in islets from homozygous mice at 12–14 weeks, while beta-cell area was reduced. Non-fasting blood glucose levels were decreased at this age. In follow-up studies 8–10 weeks later, beta-cell area was similar in all groups, while glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was now reduced in islets from hetero- and homozygous mice. Non-fasting blood glucose levels had normalized. These data suggest that Kv7.1 dysfunction is involved in a transition from hyper- to hyposecretion of insulin, potentially explaining the association with both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in LQT1 patients

    The hepatoprotective effect of jaboticaba peel powder in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus involves the modulation of thiol/disulfide redox state through the upregulation of glutathione synthesis

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    Jaboticaba peel powder (JPP) is rich in bioactive compounds, mainly soluble and insoluble polyphenols with great antioxidant properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of JPP supplementation on the oxidative stress and hepatic damage in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diabetic rats received vehicle or JPP at 2.7 (JPP-I), 5.4 (JPP-II), or 10.8 (JPP-III) g/L in drinking water during 8 weeks. JPP-III attenuated hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia increased by 86% the liver content of nonprotein thiol groups and by 90% the GSH/GSSG ratio by activating glutathione synthesis. Accordingly, JPP supplementation prevented the loss of activity of the sulfhydryl-dependent enzyme δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase and attenuated hepatic injury assessed by the reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and liver hypertrophy. Our results support that JPP supplementation to T2DM rats decreases hepatic damage most likely by increasing glutathione synthesis and modulating the thiol/disulfide redox balance.2018CONSELHO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO CIENTÍFICO E TECNOLÓGICO - CNPQCOORDENAÇÃO DE APERFEIÇOAMENTO DE PESSOAL DE NÍVEL SUPERIOR - CAPES309227/2013-5 ; 458664/2014-6 ; 301108/2016-1 ; 552440/2011-6Sem informaçã
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