968 research outputs found

    EUSO-SPB1 mission and science

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    International audienceThe Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon 1 (EUSO-SPB1) was launched in 2017 April from Wanaka, New Zealand. The plan of this mission of opportunity on a NASA super pressure balloon test flight was to circle the southern hemisphere. The primary scientific goal was to make the first observations of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray extensive air showers (EASs) by looking down on the atmosphere with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence telescope from suborbital altitude (33 km). After 12 days and 4 h aloft, the flight was terminated prematurely in the Pacific Ocean. Before the flight, the instrument was tested extensively in the West Desert of Utah, USA, with UV point sources and lasers. The test results indicated that the instrument had sensitivity to EASs of ⪆3 EeV. Simulations of the telescope system, telescope on time, and realized flight trajectory predicted an observation of about 1 event assuming clear sky conditions. The effects of high clouds were estimated to reduce this value by approximately a factor of 2. A manual search and a machine-learning-based search did not find any EAS signals in these data. Here we review the EUSO-SPB1 instrument and flight and the EAS search

    EUSO-Offline: A comprehensive simulation and analysis framework

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    International audienceThe complexity of modern cosmic ray observatories and therich data sets they capture often require a sophisticated softwareframework to support the simulation of physical processes, detectorresponse, as well as reconstruction and analysis of real andsimulated data. Here we present the EUSO-Offline framework. Thecode base was originally developed by the Pierre AugerCollaboration, and portions of it have been adopted by othercollaborations to suit their needs. We have extended this softwareto fulfill the requirements of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Raydetectors and very high energy neutrino detectors developed for theJoint Exploratory Missions for an Extreme Universe Observatory(JEM-EUSO). These path-finder instruments constitute a program tochart the path to a future space-based mission like POEMMA. Forcompleteness, we describe the overall structure of the frameworkdeveloped by the Auger collaboration and continue with a descriptionof the JEM-EUSO simulation and reconstruction capabilities. Theframework is written predominantly in modern C++ (compliled againstC++17) and incorporates third-party libraries chosen based onfunctionality and our best judgment regarding support andlongevity. Modularity is a central notion in the framework design, arequirement for large collaborations in which many individualscontribute to a common code base and often want to compare differentapproaches to a given problem. For the same reason, the framework isdesigned to be highly configurable, which allows us to contend witha variety of JEM-EUSO missions and observation scenarios. We alsodiscuss how we incorporate broad, industry-standard testing coveragewhich is necessary to ensure quality and maintainability of arelatively large code base, and the tools we employ to support amultitude of computing platforms and enable fast, reliableinstallation of external packages. Finally, we provide a fewexamples of simulation and reconstruction applications usingEUSO-Offline

    EUSO-Offline: A comprehensive simulation and analysis framework

    No full text
    International audienceThe complexity of modern cosmic ray observatories and therich data sets they capture often require a sophisticated softwareframework to support the simulation of physical processes, detectorresponse, as well as reconstruction and analysis of real andsimulated data. Here we present the EUSO-Offline framework. Thecode base was originally developed by the Pierre AugerCollaboration, and portions of it have been adopted by othercollaborations to suit their needs. We have extended this softwareto fulfill the requirements of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Raydetectors and very high energy neutrino detectors developed for theJoint Exploratory Missions for an Extreme Universe Observatory(JEM-EUSO). These path-finder instruments constitute a program tochart the path to a future space-based mission like POEMMA. Forcompleteness, we describe the overall structure of the frameworkdeveloped by the Auger collaboration and continue with a descriptionof the JEM-EUSO simulation and reconstruction capabilities. Theframework is written predominantly in modern C++ (compliled againstC++17) and incorporates third-party libraries chosen based onfunctionality and our best judgment regarding support andlongevity. Modularity is a central notion in the framework design, arequirement for large collaborations in which many individualscontribute to a common code base and often want to compare differentapproaches to a given problem. For the same reason, the framework isdesigned to be highly configurable, which allows us to contend witha variety of JEM-EUSO missions and observation scenarios. We alsodiscuss how we incorporate broad, industry-standard testing coveragewhich is necessary to ensure quality and maintainability of arelatively large code base, and the tools we employ to support amultitude of computing platforms and enable fast, reliableinstallation of external packages. Finally, we provide a fewexamples of simulation and reconstruction applications usingEUSO-Offline

    Search for high-mass exclusive ő≥ő≥ ‚Üí WW and ő≥ő≥ ‚Üí ZZ production in proton-proton collisions at s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV

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    Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy: a SICE (Societ√† Italiana di Chirurgia Endoscopica e Nuove tecnologie) network prospective study on the approach to right colon lymphadenectomy in Italy: is there a standard?‚ÄĒCoDIG 2 (ColonDx Italian Group)

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    Background: Colon cancer is a disease with a worldwide spread. Surgery is the best option for the treatment of advanced colon cancer, but some aspects are still debated, such as the extent of lymphadenectomy. In Japanese guidelines, the gold standard was D3 dissection to remove the central lymph nodes (203, 213, and 223), but in 2009, Hoenberger et al. introduced the concept of complete mesocolic excision, in which surgical dissection follows the embryological planes to remove the mesentery entirely to prevent leakage of cancer cells and collect more lymph nodes. Our study describes how lymphadenectomy is currently performed in major Italian centers with an unclear indication on the type of lymphadenectomy that should be performed during right hemicolectomy (RH). Methods: CoDIG 2 is an observational multicenter national study that involves 76 Italian general surgery wards highly specialized in colorectal surgery. Each center was asked not to modify their usual surgical and clinical practices. The aim of the study was to assess the preference of Italian surgeons on the type of lymphadenectomy to perform during RH and the rise of any new trends or modifications in habits compared to the findings of the CoDIG 1 study conducted 4 years ago. Results: A total of 788 patients were enrolled. The most commonly used surgical technique was laparoscopic (82.1%) with intracorporeal (73.4%), side-to-side (98.7%), or isoperistaltic (96.0%) anastomosis. The lymph nodes at the origin of the vessels were harvested in an inferior number of cases (203, 213, and 223: 42.4%, 31.1%, and 20.3%, respectively). A comparison between CoDIG 1 and CoDIG 2 showed a stable trend in surgical techniques and complications, with an increase in the robotic approach (7.7% vs. 12.3%). Conclusions: This analysis shows how lymphadenectomy is performed in Italy to achieve oncological outcomes in RH, although the technique to achieve a higher lymph node count has not yet been standardized. Trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov) ID: NCT05943951

    Nonresonant central exclusive production of charged-hadron pairs in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV