111 research outputs found

    Strong genetic differentiation between fragmented alpine bush-cricket populations demands preservation of evolutionary significant units

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    The eastern alpine bush cricket, Anonconotus italoaustriacus Nadig, 1987, is a grassland species historically present in a few disjunct ranges in north-eastern Italy and High Tauern in Austria. The species has recently been included in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as an endangered species with a decreasing population trend. Information regarding the genetic structure of endangered insect populations and the delineation of evolutionary significant units (ESUs) are nowadays a useful and integral component of many conservation plans. The genetic differentiation of A. italoaustriacus populations was studied through the analysis of four fragments of the mitochondrial DNA in five disjunct populations, covering the entire Italian geographical distribution known for this taxon and partially the Austrian distribution. Results revealed a strong geographical structure among populations and complete absence of gene flow suggesting the need to protect these evolutionary distinct lineages. Divergence time estimation analyses suggested that an ancient separation of bush-cricket populations occurred approximately 1-1.5 Mya. Since the A. italoaustriacus populations represented genetically differentiated entities, conservation efforts should consider each population as a management unit. Conservation actions, preceded by detailed ecological studies and focused on monitoring, preserving and enlarging the existing habitat patches are thus proposed

    Small-molecule activation of OGG1 increases oxidative DNA damage repair by gaining a new function

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    Oxidative DNA damage is recognised by 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), which excises 8-oxoG, leaving a substrate for apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), initiating repair. Here, we describe a small molecule (TH10785) that interacts with the Phe319 and Gly42 amino acids of OGG1, increases the enzyme activity 10-fold and generates a novel β,δ-lyase enzymatic function. TH10785 controls the catalytic activity mediated by a nitrogen base within its molecular structure. In cells, TH10785 increases OGG1 recruitment to and repair of oxidative DNA damage. This alters the repair process, which no longer requires APE1 but instead is dependent on polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP1) activity. The increased repair of oxidative DNA lesions with a small molecule may have therapeutic applications in various diseases and ageing.European Research Council TAROX-695376Swedish Research Council 2015-00162 and 2018-03406Ministry of Science and Innovation, Spain/State Research Agency, Spain/10.13039/501.100011033European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) BFU2017-83900-PCrafoord Foundation 20190532Alfred Osterlund FoundationSwedish Pain Relief FoundationSwedish Cancer Society CAN 2018/0658 and CAN 2017/716Torsten and Ragnar Soderberg foundationDr. Ake-Olsson Foundation for Hematological Research 2020-00306Thomas Helleday Foundation for medical research postdoctoral stipendsNTNU Enabling Technology Programme on BiotechnologyEMBO Short-Term Fellowship 9005FEBS Short-Term FellowshipScandinavian ExchangeGerman Research Foundation (DFG) 239748522Sonderforschungsbereich (SFB) 1127Leibniz AwardNorwegian Research Council 303369Karolinska Institutet Research Foundation 2020-02186Lars Hiertas Minne StiftelseAsociacion Espanola Contra Cancer grant Postdoctoral AECC 2020 POSTD20042BENIInstituto de Salud Carlos III CP19/00063, PI20/00329 and PI19/00640European Social Fund (ESF)Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) 875510European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, Marie Sklodowska-Curie 722729Accepte

    EAACI Guidelines on the effective transition of adolescents and young adults with allergy and asthma

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    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients need additional support while they experience the challenges associated with their age. They need specific training to learn the knowledge and skills required to confidently self-manage their allergies and/or asthma. Transitional care is a complex process which should address the psychological, medical, educational and vocational needs of AYA in the developmentally appropriate way. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has developed a clinical practice guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for healthcare professionals to support the transitional care of AYA with allergy and/or asthma. This guideline was developed by a multi-disciplinary working panel of experts and patient representatives based on two recent systematic reviews. It sets out a series of general recommendations on operating a clinical service for AYA, which include: (i) starting transition early (11-13 years), (ii) using a structured, multidisciplinary approach, (iii) ensuring AYA fully understand their condition and have resources they can access, (iv) active monitoring of adherence and (v) discussing any implications for further education and work. Specific allergy and asthma transition recommendations include (i) simplifying medication regimes and using reminders; (ii) focusing on areas where AYA are not confident and involving peers in training AYA patients; (iii) identifying and managing psychological and socioeconomic issues impacting disease control and quality of life; (iv) enrolling the family in assisting AYA to undertake self-management and (v) encouraging AYA to let their friends know about their allergies and asthma. These recommendations may need to be adapted to fit into national healthcare systems

    ANALISIS JENIS KERANG (PELECYPODA/BIVALVIA) DI KAMPUNG AMBAI DISTRIK KEPULAUAN AMBAI KABUPATEN KEPULAUAN YAPEN

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    ABSTRACTThis study aims to determite the types of shells contained in Ambai village, Ambai Island District, Yapen Island Regency, to know what kind of shellfis is utilized by the community of Ambai village, to know the diversity of species of shell found on the beaches of Ambai village, Ambai Island District, Yapen Island Regency, and to know how the habitat charteristics for the type of shell (Pelecypoda/Bivalvia) in the village of Ambai. This research was conducted on three stations. The method used in this reseach is line tansect method white data analysis is done descriptively and quantitatively, and to know the diversity of type using Shnnon wiener diversity index. The resultas of study found eleven types of (Pelecypoda/Bivalvia) consist of six families located at the reseach location of the type Vepricardium sinense (Cardiidae), Polymesoda cauxaus, Polymesoda bengalensis (Corbiculidae), Hiatula chinensis (Psammobiidae), Meretrix meretrix, Gafrarium tumidum, Gafrarium pectinatum, Periglypta reticulata (Veneridae), Anadara antiquata, Barbatia decussata (Arcidae), Tellina virgata (Tellinade). The shellfish used by the community of Ambai village consist of four types namely type Polymesoda cauxaus, Polymesoda bengalensis, Anadara antiquata, and Meretrix meretrix. In transect I was fornd characteristic type of muddly sand substrate, transect II and III  type of substrate of muddly sand  fine sand, nested sand. With the diversity index of shellfish species located in the beach of Ambai village, Ambai Island District Yapen Island Regency is H’=1, Can be categorized as low. Key words : Shellfish (Pelecypoda/Bivalvia), Ambai village

    Comprimento de isquiotibiais, função motora grossa e marcha em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral

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    O objetivo desse estudo é verificar se há relação entre o comprimento dos isquiotibiais, função motora grossa e marcha em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral (PC). Os participantes, entre 6 e 18 anos, foram classificados pelo Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (GMFCS) nos níveis I, II e III através da escala Tardieu modificada, para avaliar o comprimento dos músculos isquiotibiais, sendo identificados em: R1 (primeira resistência da extensão da perna), R2 (segunda resistência da extensão da perna) e R2-R1 (diferença entre R1 e R2) do membro inferior esquerdo e direito. Para avaliar a função motora grossa, foi utilizado o teste gross motor function measure (GMFM-88), e a escala physicians rating scale modificada (PRS) foi utilizada para avaliar a marcha. Vinte e três participantes foram incluídos e os resultados evidenciaram correlações moderadas entre R1, R2 e PRS do membro inferior esquerdo e GMFM. As demais variáveis apresentaram uma correlação fraca.This study aims at assessing the relationship between hamstring length, gross motor function, and gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Children and adolescents aged between 6 and 18 years, were classified as levels I, II or III according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Participants were assessed using a modified Tardieu Scale to determine hamstring length, evaluating: R1 (first leg extension resistance), R2 (second leg extension resistance) and R2-R1 (difference between R1 and R2) of the left and right lower limbs. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) was used to evaluate gross motor function and the modified Physicians Rating Scale (PRS) for gait. Twenty-three participants were included in the study and the results showed a moderate correlation between R1, R2, and PRS of the left leg and the GMFM. All other variables exhibited a weak correlation. Hamstring length was weakly to moderately related to gross motor function and gait in children and adolescents with CP.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar si existe una relación entre el tamaño de los isquiotibiales, la función motora gruesa y la marcha en niños y adolescentes con parálisis cerebral (PC). Los participantes con edades entre 6 y 18 años fueron clasificados en el Sistema de Clasificación de la Función Motora Gruesa (GMFCS) en los niveles I, II y III utilizando la escala Tardieu modificada para evaluar el tamaño de los músculos isquiotibiales, y que los identificaron en: R1 (primera resistencia de extensión de la pierna), R2 (segunda resistencia de extensión de la pierna) y R2-R1 (diferencia entre R1 y R2) de la extremidad inferior izquierda y derecha. Para evaluar la función motora gruesa, se utilizó la prueba Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88); y para evaluar la marcha, la escala Physicians Rating Scale modificada (PRS). Se incluyeron 23 participantes, y los resultados mostraron correlaciones moderadas entre R1, R2 y PRS del miembro inferior izquierdo y GMFM. Las otras variables tuvieron una correlación débil

    Studio epidemiologico sul rischio di cancro del rinofaringe, leucemie e altri tumori in una coorte di dipendenti e studenti potenzialmente esposti a formaldeide in laboratori universitari

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    FA was recently classified as carcinogen of second class (category 1B). A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the evaluation of the association between exposure to FA and cancer in professionally potentially exposed in a University setting. The cohort was composed of 140 exposed to FA and 364 not exposed in the period 1999-2015. The results showed no cancers of naso-pharynx and leukemias or lymphomas both among exposed and not exposed. Moreover, the exposure to FA is not significantly associated to an increase of other types of tumors

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in pancreatic islet inflammation.

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    Insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells are extremely dependent on their endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cope with the oscillatory requirement of secreted insulin to maintain normoglycemia. Insulin translation and folding rely greatly on the unfolded protein response (UPR), an array of three main signaling pathways designed to maintain ER homeostasis and limit ER stress. However, prolonged or excessive UPR activation triggers alternative molecular pathways that can lead to β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. An increasing number of studies suggest a role of these pro-apoptotic UPR pathways in the downfall of β-cells observed in diabetic patients. Particularly, the past few years highlighted a cross talk between the UPR and inflammation in the context of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this article, we describe the recent advances in research regarding the interplay between ER stress, the UPR, and inflammation in the context of β-cell apoptosis leading to diabetes
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