70 research outputs found

    Differentiated policy implementation in the European Union

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    This special issue analyses the patterns, causes and consequences of Differentiated Policy Implementation (DPI) in the European Union (EU). DPI is an umbrella term for the diversity in the presence and use of discretion during legal and practical policy implementation processes and outcomes in the EU. The emergent DPI research agenda emphasises differentiation in EU policy implementation beyond mere legal compliance, which is more widespread, and its role in the broader political and policy processes of EU multilevel governance. The contributions highlight anticipated implementation as one dimension of DPI, as well as legal and practical implementation. DPI serves as an alternative to differentiated integration (DI), accommodating heterogeneous national preferences, capacities and conditions, and feeding back into EU policy-making. The impact of DPI on the EU’s output legitimacy and effectiveness depends on scope conditions that require more scholarly attention.</p

    Risk of postpartum depressive symptoms is influenced by psychological burden related to the COVID-19 pandemic and dependent of individual stress coping

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    PURPOSE: There are different studies worldwide, which have shown a higher risk of mental disorders due to the COVID-19 pandemic. One aim of this study was to identify influencing factors of the psychological burden related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact on the development of postpartum depression. Further, the role of individual stress and coping strategies was analyzed in this context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March and October 2020, 131 women in obstetric care at the LMU Clinic Munich completed a questionnaire at consecutive stages during their perinatal period. The times set for the questionnaire were before birth, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months after birth. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the psychological burden related to the COVID-19 pandemic. For this a modified version of the Stress and coping inventory (SCI) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used. RESULTS: We could show that the psychological burden related to the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the EPDS score 1, 2 and 6 months after birth. In addition, the prenatal stress and individual coping strategies affected the EPDS and the burden related to the COVID-19 pandemic before and after birth significantly. CONCLUSION: An association of the psychological burden related to the COVID-19 pandemic with the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms could be shown in this study. In this context, the separation of the partner and the family was recognized as an important factor. Furthermore, the SCI was identified as an effective screening instrument for identifying mothers with an increased risk of postpartum depression. Hereby allowing primary prevention by early intervention or secondary prevention by early diagnosis. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00404-022-06854-0

    Under what conditions does bureaucracy matter in the making of global public policies?

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    First published: 16 November 2022This study investigates how configurations of bureaucratic autonomy, policy complexity and political contestation allow international public administrations (IPAs) to influence policymaking within international organizations. A fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 17 policy decisions in four organizations (FAO, WHO, ILO, UNESCO) shows that all IPAs studied can be influential in favorable contexts. When policies are both contested and complex, even IPAs lacking autonomy can influence policy. If either complexity or contestation is absent, however, it is the variant of autonomy of will that helps the IPA exploit procedural strategies of influence. Low autonomy of will, among other factors, explains why IPAs cannot exert influence. Conversely, the variant of autonomy of action appears largely irrelevant. The study provides new insights into the role of bureaucracy beyond the state, exemplifying how research of bureaucratic influence can yield more systematic results in various empirical settings

    Approaches to Qualitative Comparative Analysis and good practices : A systematic review

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    The Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) methodology has evolved remarkably in social science research. Simultaneously, the use of QCA too often lags behind methodological recommendations of good practice. Improper use is a serious obstacle for QCA to enrich the social science methodology toolkit. We explore whether the coherence of analytic approaches can help us understand good practices in applied QCA by performing a systematic review of 86 QCA studies. Although adherence to technical GPs has improved over time, we find a high prevalence of incoherent, “hybrid” approaches. As the hybridity of a study increases, its adherence to good practices decreases. The case-oriented, realist, exploratory QCA studies do not consistently follow recommendations of good practice. Instead, the only consistently good-practice approach is case-oriented, realist, but explicitly theory-evaluating. We conclude that consistently aligning methodological choice with the underlying analytic approach and the use of theory can help foster good practices in applied QCA.publishe

    Same legal status but unequal treatment: bureaucratic discrimination against mobile EU citizens

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    EU Citizenship guarantees the same rights to all mobile EU citizens who move to another member state. And yet, as a recent study by Christian Adam, Xavier Fernández-i-Marín, Oliver James, Anita Manatschal, Carolin Rapp and Eva Thomann indicates, some EU citizens are more likely than others to face discrimination when interacting with their host country’s public administration. Remarkably, they find that patterns of discrimination displayed by public administrators are very similar to patterns of discriminatory behaviour displayed by the general public

    Policy implementation

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    The EU policy-making process does not end with the fnalisation and adoption of EU legislation. In order to have a measurable impact on environmental quality, EU policies must also be implemented by member states, businesses and civil society. However, implementation remains the 'Achilles heel' of EU policy, contributing to the maintenance of diverse environmental outcomes on the ground in the member states. Thus, while some member states fail to comply with EU environmental rules, others implement more ambitious policies than the EU formally requires. The EU has been and remains active in seeking to remedy implementation problems. Follow-up enforcement by EU institutions is generally effective, but it is often very slow. Nonetheless, non-compliance with EU environmental law remains a problem and causes considerable health-related and environmental costs. In tackling it, member state capacity, domestic politics and civil society play an important role