689 research outputs found

    Screening the Past: Historiography of Contemporary South Korean Cinema, 1998-2008

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    This dissertation examines cinematic representations of history on contemporary South Korean screen and the practices of film historiography in South Korea during a decade of democratic regimes are the subjects of this study. Between 1998 and 2008, during two liberal presidencies, the Korean film industry flourished and some of the most critical and traumatic events in the past were re-visited and re-visioned in popular films. 2009 Lost Memories and Hanbando employ alternative re-writings of the past, present, and future to portray the experiences of Japanese colonial occupations. The Korean War is re-examined in a more ambiguous and critical light in Taegukgi: The Brotherhood of War and Welcome to Dongmakgol, while Peppermint Candy and Splendid Vacation strive for capturing people's history, not an officially imposed version of History, in telling of the Gwangju Democratization Movement. As complex social constructions, the films analyzed in this dissertation reveal that South Koreans are finally able to ruminate on their past in a less simplistic and more complex manner without censorship.Doctor of Philosoph

    Cavity induced vibration of flexible hydrofoils

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    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of cavity-induced vibrations on the dynamic response and stability of a NACA66 hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack at Re=750 000 via combined experimental measurements and numerical simulations. The rectangular, cantilevered hydrofoil is assumed to be rigid in the chordwise direction, while the spanwise bending and twisting deformations are represented using a two-degrees-of-freedom structural model. The multiphase flow is modeled with an incompressible, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes solver with the k–ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence closure model, while the phase evolutions are modeled with a mass-transport equation based cavitation model. The numerical predictions are compared with experimental measurements across a range of cavitation numbers for a rigid and a flexible hydrofoil with the same undeformed geometries. The results showed that foil flexibility can lead to: (1) focusing – locking – of the frequency content of the vibrations to the nearest sub-harmonics of the foil׳s wetted natural frequencies, and (2) broadening of the frequency content of the vibrations in the unstable cavitation regime, where amplifications are observed in the sub-harmonics of the foil natural frequencies. Cavitation was also observed to cause frequency modulation, as the fluid density, and hence fluid induced (inertial, damping, and disturbing) forces fluctuated with unsteady cavitation.The authors gratefully acknowledge Ms. Kelly Cooper (program manager) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), for their financial support through Grant nos. N00014-11-1-0833 and N0014-12-C-0585, as well as ONR Global and Dr. Woei-Min Lin (program manager) through grant no. N62909-12-1-7076

    Removal of Pb and Cu ions from aqueous solution by Mn3O4-coated activated carbon

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    Mn3O4-coated activated carbon (Mn3O4/AC) was prepared by supercritical technique and applied for the removal of Pb and Cu ions from aqueous solution. Kinetic and isotherm data of the adsorption by Mn3O4/AC were compared with those of activated carbon (AC) and pure Mn3O4. Adsorption of metals was adequately described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models. Maximum adsorption capacities of Pb and Cu ions determined by Langmuir model were enhanced 2.2 and 6.1 times for Pb and Cu ions by Mn3O4 coating onto AC, which might be attributed to reduced resistance of intraparticle diffusion and enhanced surface electrostatic interaction and complexation by Mn3O4

    Clinical disease characteristics according to karyotype in Turner syndrome

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    Purpose : Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in which various anomalies can be accompanied, especially cardiovascular, renal, thyroid and auditory problems. The aim of this study is to identify the incidence of these disorders in patients with TS according to karyotype. Methods : We reviewed medical records of 90 patients with TS diagnosed by chromosomal analysis in 4 hospitals from Jan 1998 to Dec 2007. We evaluated these cases by prepared protocol of 4 medical problems. Results : The distribution of karyotype was 45,X (47.8%), mosaic pattern (34.4%) and structural aberration group (17.8 %). Renal anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, thyroid disorders and auditory problems are accompanied in 4.4%, 10.0 %, 11.1% and 5.6%, respectively. 45,X group had renal anomalies (7.0%), cardiovascular anomalies (18.6%), thyroid disorders (9.3%) and auditory problems (11.6%). Mosaic group had renal anomalies (3.2%), thyroid disorders (12.9%), no cardiovascular anomalies and auditory problems. Structural aberration group had cardiovascular anomalies (6.3%), thyroid disorders (12.5%) and no other 2 problems. Patients with 45,X group had a significant higher incidence of cardiovascular anomalies (P=0.025). Conclusion : Our results indicate that there are differences clinically according to karyotype of TS, especially in incidence of cardiovascular anomalies

    Carotid Endarterectomy for Symptomatic Complete Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery

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    We described 9 consecutive patients who underwent operative carotid artery exploration with attempted carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Indications for this surgery based on vascular imaging included segmental occlusion of the proximal ICA and also extensive occlusion of the distal ICA in selected patients in whom color-flow duplex ultrasound showed a poorly echogenic or anechoic thrombus with a flow void, suggestive of an acute thrombus. CEA was performed successfully to restore blood flow in all 9 patients:CEA in 5 and CEA with Fogarty thrombectomy in 4. Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) angiography confirmed that revascularization had been successful in all 9 patients, and MR imaging displayed improved perfusion in 4 patients. Despite the lack of a generalized efficacy of surgical revascularization for symptomatic ICA occlusion, our study demonstrated that preoperative vascular imaging allows the selection of patients who may benefit from CEA

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

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    The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity

    Unleashing the full potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics through simultaneous inactivation of Hsp90, Grp94, and TRAP1

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    Cancer therapeutics: Extending a drug's reach A new drug that blocks heat shock proteins (HSPs), helper proteins that are co-opted by cancer cells to promote tumor growth, shows promise for cancer treatment. Several drugs have targeted HSPs, since cancer cells are known to hijack these helper proteins to shield themselves from destruction by the body. However, the drugs have had limited success. Hye-Kyung Park and Byoung Heon Kang at Ulsan National Institutes of Science and Technology in South Korea and coworkers noticed that the drugs were not absorbed into mitochondria, a key cellular compartment, and HSPs in this compartment were therefore not being blocked. They identified a new HSP inhibitor that can reach every cellular compartment and inhibit all HSPs. Testing in mice showed that this inhibitor effectively triggered death of tumor cells, and therefore shows promise for anti-cancer therapy. The Hsp90 family proteins Hsp90, Grp94, and TRAP1 are present in the cell cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, respectively; all play important roles in tumorigenesis by regulating protein homeostasis in response to stress. Thus, simultaneous inhibition of all Hsp90 paralogs is a reasonable strategy for cancer therapy. However, since the existing pan-Hsp90 inhibitor does not accumulate in mitochondria, the potential anticancer activity of pan-Hsp90 inhibition has not yet been fully examined in vivo. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that all Hsp90 paralogs were upregulated in prostate cancer. Inactivation of all Hsp90 paralogs induced mitochondrial dysfunction, increased cytosolic calcium, and activated calcineurin. Active calcineurin blocked prosurvival heat shock responses upon Hsp90 inhibition by preventing nuclear translocation of HSF1. The purine scaffold derivative DN401 inhibited all Hsp90 paralogs simultaneously and showed stronger anticancer activity than other Hsp90 inhibitors. Pan-Hsp90 inhibition increased cytotoxicity and suppressed mechanisms that protect cancer cells, suggesting that it is a feasible strategy for the development of potent anticancer drugs. The mitochondria-permeable drug DN401 is a newly identified in vivo pan-Hsp90 inhibitor with potent anticancer activity

    High Glucose Accelerates Autophagy in Adult Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells

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    Study DesignIn vitro cell culture.PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult rat intervertebral disc cells.Overview of LiteratureDiabetes mellitus is considered to be an important etiologic factor for intervertebral disc degeneration, resulting in degenerative disc diseases. A glucose-mediated increase of autophagy is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells.MethodsNucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from 24-week-old adult rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (normal control) or 10% fetal bovine serum plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M) (experimental conditions) for one and three days, respectively. The expressions of autophagy markers, such as beclin-1, light chain 3-I (LC3-I) and LC3-II, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3, 5, 7 and 12, were identified and quantified.ResultsTwo high glucoses significantly increased the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-II, Atg3, 5, 7, and 12 in adult rat nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression was also increased in a dose-respectively time-dependent manner.ConclusionsThe results suggest that autophagy of adult nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells might be a potential mechanism for the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Thus, the prevention of autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells might be considered as a novel therapeutic target to prevent or to delay the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus

    The 5'-end transitional CpGs between the CpG islands and retroelements are hypomethylated in association with loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancers

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    BACKGROUND: A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) represents a unilateral chromosomal loss that reduces the dose of highly repetitive Alu, L1, and LTR retroelements. The aim of this study was to determine if the LOH events can affect the spread of retroelement methylation in the 5'-end transitional area between the CpG islands and their nearest retroelements. METHODS: The 5'-transitional area of all human genes (22,297) was measured according to the nearest retroelements to the transcription start sites. For 50 gastric cancer specimens, the level of LOH events on eight cancer-associated chromosomes was estimated using the microsatellite markers, and the 5'-transitional CpGs of 20 selected genes were examined by methylation analysis using the bisulfite-modified DNA. RESULTS: The extent of the transitional area was significantly shorter with the nearest Alu elements than with the nearest L1 and LTR elements, as well as in the extragenic regions containing a higher density of retroelements than in the intragenic regions. The CpG islands neighbouring a high density of Alu elements were consistently hypomethylated in both normal and tumor tissues. The 5'-transitional methylated CpG sites bordered by a low density of Alu elements or the L1 and LTR elements were hypomethylated more frequently in the high-level LOH cases than in the low-level LOH cases. CONCLUSION: The 5'-transitional methylated CpG sites not completely protected by the Alu elements were hypomethylated in association with LOH events in gastric cancers. This suggests that an irreversible unbalanced decrease in the genomic dose reduces the spread of L1 methylation in the 5'-end regions of genes
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