70 research outputs found

    Mucin 4 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 as novel salivary biomarkers for periodontitis

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    Aim: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by irreversible destruction of tooth-supporting tissue including alveolar bone. We recently reported mucin 4 ( MUC4) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) as highly associated with periodontitis in gingival tissue biopsies. The aim of this study was to further investigate the levels of MUC4 and MMP7 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva and GCF samples were collected from periodontitis patients and healthy controls. The levels of MUC4, MMP7, and total protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA or Bradford assay. Results: MUC4 levels were significantly lower in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients relative to healthy controls. MMP7 levels were significantly higher in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that MUC4 was significantly associated with periodontitis after adjusting for age and smoking habits and, moreover, that the combination of MUC4 and MMP7 accurately discriminated periodontitis from healthy controls. Conclusions: MUC4 and MMP7 may be utilized as possible novel biomarkers for periodontitis.Peer reviewe

    The Holocene retreat dynamics and stability of Petermann Glacier in northwest Greenland

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    Submarine glacial landforms in fjords are imprints of the dynamic behaviour of marine-terminating glaciers and are informative about their most recent retreat phase. Here we use detailed multibeam bathymetry to map glacial landforms in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait, northwestern Greenland. A large grounding-zone wedge (GZW) demonstrates that Petermann Glacier stabilised at the fjord mouth for a considerable time, likely buttressed by an ice shelf. This stability was followed by successive backstepping of the ice margin down the GZW’s retrograde backslope forming small retreat ridges to 680 m current depth (∼730–800 m palaeodepth). Iceberg ploughmarks occurring somewhat deeper show that thick, grounded ice persisted to these water depths before final breakup occurred. The palaeodepth limit of the recessional moraines is consistent with final collapse driven by marine ice cliff instability (MICI) with retreat to the next stable position located underneath the present Petermann ice tongue, where the seafloor is unmapped

    Long-term tolerability and efficacy after initial PegIFN-alpha addition to dasatinib in CML-CP : Five-year follow-up of the NordCML007 study

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    Objectives Treatment-free remission (TFR) has emerged as a treatment goal in chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). Attempts to increase proportion of patients achieving TFR include combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and other drugs. Interferon-alpha in addition to TKI has shown promising efficacy but with dose-dependent toxicity and discontinuations. NordCML007 was initiated to study the efficacy and safety of low dose pegylated IFN-alpha (PegIFN-alpha) in combination with dasatinib (DAS) in CML-CP. Methods Forty patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were given DAS upfront. After month 3 (M3) 15 mu g/wk of PegIFN-alpha was added and increased to 25 mu g/wk from M7 until M15. DAS treatment was continued and adverse events and BCR-ABL1 qRT-PCR values were reported yearly after M24. Results from M1 to M18 have previously been published, and here we present long-term data. Results After 5 years of follow-up, there were no suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions, no increase in serosal effusions, no disease progressions and no CML-related deaths. Rates of MR3.0 (MMR), MR4.0 and MR4.5 were 84.6%, 64.1% and 51.3% respectively at M60, and 95% of patients reached MMR at some point during the study. Conclusion Initial addition of PegIFN-alpha to DAS shows good long-term efficacy without increased toxicity.Peer reviewe

    High-throughput muscle fiber typing from RNA sequencing data

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    Background: Skeletal muscle fiber type distribution has implications for human health, muscle function, and performance. This knowledge has been gathered using labor-intensive and costly methodology that limited these studies. Here, we present a method based on muscle tissue RNA sequencing data (totRNAseq) to estimate the distribution of skeletal muscle fiber types from frozen human samples, allowing for a larger number of individuals to be tested. Methods: By using single-nuclei RNA sequencing (snRNAseq) data as a reference, cluster expression signatures were produced by averaging gene expression of cluster gene markers and then applying these to totRNAseq data and inferring muscle fiber nuclei type via linear matrix decomposition. This estimate was then compared with fiber type distribution measured by ATPase staining or myosin heavy chain protein isoform distribution of 62 muscle samples in two independent cohorts (n = 39 and 22). Results: The correlation between the sequencing-based method and the other two were r(ATpas) = 0.44 [0.13-0.67], [95% CI], and r(myosin) = 0.83 [0.61-0.93], with p = 5.70 x 10(-3) and 2.00 x 10(-6), respectively. The deconvolution inference of fiber type composition was accurate even for very low totRNAseq sequencing depths, i.e., down to an average of similar to 10,000 paired-end reads. Conclusions: This new method (https://github.com/OlaHanssonLab/PredictFiberType) consequently allows for measurement of fiber type distribution of a larger number of samples using totRNAseq in a cost and labor-efficient way. It is now feasible to study the association between fiber type distribution and e.g. health outcomes in large well-powered studies.Peer reviewe

    Exploring the development of a cultural care framework for European caring science

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    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of a cultural care framework that seeks to inform and embrace the philosophical ideals of caring science. Following a review of the literature that identified a lack of evidence of an explicit relationship between caring science and cultural care, a number of well-established transcultural care frameworks were reviewed. Our purpose was to select one that would resonate with underpinning philosophical values of caring science and that drew on criteria generated by the European Academy of Caring Science members. A modified framework based on the work of Giger and Davidhizar was developed as it embraced many of the values such as humanism that are core to caring science practice. The proposed caring science framework integrates determinants of cultural lifeworld-led care and seeks to provide clear directions for humanizing the care of individuals. The framework is offered to open up debate and act as a platform for further academic enquiry

    Successful change of treatment strategy in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma by de-escalating induction and introducing temozolomide maintenance : results from a phase II study by The Nordic Lymphoma Group

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    The Nordic Lymphoma Group has conducted a phase ll trial in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma patients applying an age-adjusted multi-agent immunochemotherapy regimen, which in elderly patients included temozolomide maintenance treatment. Patients aged 18-75 years were eligible. Thirty-nine patients aged 18-65 years and 27 patients aged 66-75 years were enrolled. The median age of the two age groups was 55 and 70 years, respectively. The overall response rate was 73.8% for the entire cohort: 69.9% in the younger and 80.8% in the elderly subgroup. With a median follow up of 22 months, the 2-year overall survival probability was 60.7% in patients aged 65 years or under and 55.6% in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.40). The estimated progression-free survival at two years was 33.1% (95% CI: 19.1%-47.9%) in patients aged under 65 years and 44.4% (95% CI: 25.6%-61.8%) in the elderly subgroup (P=0.74). Median duration of response was ten months in the younger subgroup, and not reached in the elderly patient subgroup (P=0.33). Four patients aged 64-75 years (6%) died from treatment-related complications. Survival in the two age groups was similar despite a de-escalation of induction treatment in patients aged over 65 years. Duration of response in elderly patients receiving maintenance temozolomide was longer than in the younger age subgroup. While toxicity during induction is still of concern, especially in the elderly patients, we conclude from these data that de-escalation of induction therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma patients followed by maintenance treatment seems to be a promising treatment strategy.Peer reviewe

    IFN-α with dasatinib broadens the immune repertoire in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia

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    In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), combination therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) aim to improve the achievement of deep molecular remission that would allow therapy discontinuation. IFN-alpha is one promising candidate, as it has long-lasting effects on both malignant and immune cells. In connection with a multicenter clinical trial combining dasatinib with IFN-alpha in 40 patients with chronic-phase CML (NordCML007, NCT01725204), we performed immune monitoring with single-cell RNA and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing (n = 4, 12 samples), bulk TCR beta sequencing (n = 13, 26 samples), flow cytometry (n = 40, 106 samples), cytokine analyses (n = 17, 80 samples), and ex vivo functional studies (n = 39, 80 samples). Dasatinib drove the immune repertoire toward terminally differentiated NK and CD8+ T cells with dampened functional capabilities. Patients with dasatinib-associated pleural effusions had increased numbers of CD8(+) recently activated effector memory T (Temra) cells. In vitro, dasatinib prevented CD3-induced cell death by blocking TCR signaling. The addition of IFN-alpha reversed the terminally differentiated phenotypes and increased the number of costimulatory intercellular interactions and the number of unique putative epitope-specific TCR clusters. In vitro IFN-alpha had costimulatory effects on TCR signaling. Our work supports the combination of IFN-alpha with TKI therapy, as IFN-alpha broadens the immune repertoire and restores immunological function.Peer reviewe
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