6,954 research outputs found

    Voices, bodies, and the cultural organization of meaning

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    This article examines how the “arbitrary content of culture” (Bourdieu 1977) comes to be inscribed onto patterns of sociolinguistic variation. Specifically, we consider the role of iconicity in this process. Studies of iconicity and variation to date have tended to focus on the iconic properties of the speech signal itself (e.g., an association between higher frequency sounds and smallness). We bring these ideas about sound symbolism into dialogue with research on embodied behavioural codes, which link particular forms of bodily comportment and their associated qualia with specific social categories and positions. We suggest that certain claims about sound symbolic meanings may be better interpreted as derived effects of socially meaningful bodily hexis. Our arguments are illustrated through a consideration of two variables, both of which have received widespread attention in the literature on variation in English: the backing and lowering of the short front vowels and the fronting/backing of /s/. We discuss how treating these variables from the perspective of socially inculcated bodies can provide a unified account of their observed sociolinguistic patterning and help to shed light on how variables accrue social meaning more generally

    Political instability in Israel over the last decades – Causes and consequences

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    AbstractThis article reviews the deterioration of government stability in Israel since the late 1990s and in the last three years in particular and examines the causes and consequences of this reality. The findings indicate several factors that have been contributing to government instability in Israel beginning from the late 1990s. One is the considerable heterogeneity typical of Israeli society, which encourages the establishment of many sectoral parties based on faith, country of origin, or some common interest. The second is related to cultural changes that derive from embracing a utilitarian worldview which has begun to spread throughout Israeli society and to leave its mark on the citizens’ voting patterns, and the third is related to the many possible options for dissolving the Knesset. These factors, together and separately, have led to an inability to form a stable government that has sufficient electoral power to lead long-term policy processes. Instead, government stability is eroding increasingly, politicians are developing a reasoning that is based on narrow interests and neglecting the values and ideologies for which they were chosen. All this in order to preserve their political survival, which has become their top goal, instead of promoting wide public interests

    Significance of stress keratin expression in normal and diseased epithelia

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    Summary: A group of keratin intermediate filament genes, the type II KRT6A-C and type I KRT16 and KRT17, are deemed stress responsive as they are induced in keratinocytes of surface epithelia in response to environmental stressors, in skin disorders (e.g., psoriasis) and in carcinomas. Monitoring stress keratins is widely used to identify keratinocytes in an activated state. Here, we analyze single-cell transcriptomic data from healthy and diseased human skin to explore the properties of stress keratins. Relative to keratins occurring in healthy skin, stress-induced keratins are expressed at lower levels and show lesser type I-type II pairwise regulation. Stress keratins do not “replace” the keratins expressed during normal differentiation nor reflect cellular proliferation. Instead, stress keratins are consistently co-regulated with genes with roles in differentiation, inflammation, and/or activation of innate immunity at the single-cell level. These findings provide a roadmap toward explaining the broad diversity and contextual regulation of keratins

    SENSEI: First Direct-Detection Results on sub-GeV Dark Matter from SENSEI at SNOLAB

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    International audienceWe present the first results from a dark matter search using six Skipper-CCDs in the SENSEI detector operating at SNOLAB. With an exposure of 534.9 gram-days from well-performing sensors, we select events containing 2 to 10 electron-hole pairs. After aggressively masking images to remove backgrounds, we observe 55 two-electron events, 4 three-electron events, and no events containing 4 to 10 electrons. The two-electron events are consistent with pileup from one-electron events. Among the 4 three-electron events, 2 appear in pixels that are likely impacted by detector defects, although not strongly enough to trigger our "hot-pixel" mask. We use these data to set world-leading constraints on sub-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons and nuclei

    TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF PACKAGE SEALER JAW CHASSIS OF AUTOMATIC PACKAGING MACHINE: Received: 07th October 2022; Revised: 18th November 2022, 23rd November 2022, 25th November 2022; Accepted: 28th November 2022

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    After the Covid-19 epidemic, the need to reach hygienic and sealed packaged food products has gained importance and the packaging machinery sector has become an important sector. In this context, the need for special packaging machines has increased. The jaw mechanism of the packaging machine developed within the scope of the study performs the package closing function by opening and closing 200 times per minute, and the jaw chassis carrying the jaw mechanism is exposed to the same series of movements. The design of the jaw chassis should be as light as possible so that no additional load is placed on the motors that provide the movement, while its strength should be high since it carries the entire load from the jaw plates to the motors.  To solve this problem, a structural optimization solution called topology optimization, which regulates the distribution of the elements in the design volume within the framework of the determined constraints, is used. With the performed topology optimization study, it has been determined that the new solid model, which continues to provide sufficient strength when exposed to 5000 N force, provides 11% weight gain. This work has been a pioneer for new research to obtain lightweight designs

    Increased A-to-I RNA editing in atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathies.

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    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is essential to prevent undesired immune activation. This diverse process alters the genetic content of the RNA and may recode proteins, change splice sites and miRNA targets, and mimic genomic mutations. Recent studies have associated or implicated aberrant editing with pathological conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological and psychiatric conditions. RNA editing patterns in cardiovascular tissues have not been investigated systematically so far, and little is known about its potential role in cardiac diseases. Some hints suggest robust editing in this system, including the fact that ADARB1 (ADAR2), the main coding-sequence editor, is most highly expressed in these tissues. Here we characterized RNA editing in the heart and arteries and examined a contributory role to the development of atherosclerosis and two structural heart diseases -Ischemic and Dilated Cardiomyopathies. Analyzing hundreds of RNA-seq samples taken from the heart and arteries of cardiac patients and controls, we find that global editing, alongside inflammatory gene expression, is increased in patients with atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. We describe a single recoding editing site and suggest it as a target for focused research. This recoding editing site in the IGFBP7 gene is one of the only evolutionary conserved sites between mammals, and we found it exhibits consistently increased levels of editing in these patients. Our findings reveal that RNA editing is abundant in arteries and is elevated in several key cardiovascular conditions. They thus provide a roadmap for basic and translational research of RNA as a mediator of atherosclerosis and non-genetic cardiomyopathies

    The swan genome and transcriptome, its not all black and white

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    BACKGROUND: The Australian black swan (Cygnus atratus) is an iconic species with contrasting plumage to that of the closely related northern hemisphere white swans. The relative geographic isolation of the black swan may have resulted in a limited immune repertoire and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, notably infectious diseases from which Australia has been largely shielded. Unlike mallard ducks and the mute swan (Cygnus olor), the black swan is extremely sensitive to highly pathogenic avian influenza. Understanding this susceptibility has been impaired by the absence of any available swan genome and transcriptome information. RESULTS: Here, we generate the first chromosome-length black and mute swan genomes annotated with transcriptome data, all using long-read based pipelines generated for vertebrate species. We use these genomes and transcriptomes to show that unlike other wild waterfowl, black swans lack an expanded immune gene repertoire, lack a key viral pattern-recognition receptor in endothelial cells and mount a poorly controlled inflammatory response to highly pathogenic avian influenza. We also implicate genetic differences in SLC45A2 gene in the iconic plumage of the black swan. CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest that the immune system of the black swan is such that should any avian viral infection become established in its native habitat, the black swan would be in a significant peril. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13059-022-02838-0

    Gut microbial signatures are associated with Lynch syndrome (LS) and cancer history in Druze communities in Israel

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    Abstract Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by autosomal dominant mutations, with high probability of early onset for several cancers, mainly colorectal cancer (CRC). The gut microbiome was shown to be influenced by host genetics and to be altered during cancer development. Therefore, we aimed to determine alterations in gut microbiome compositions of LS patients with and without cancer. We performed fecal microbiome analyses on samples of LS and non-LS members from the Druze ethnoreligious community in Israel, based on both their LS mutation and their cancer history. Our analysis revealed specific bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) overrepresented in LS individuals as well as bacterial OTUs differentiating between the LS individuals with a history of cancer. The identified OTUs align with previous studies either correlating them to pro-inflammatory functions, which can predispose to cancer, or to the cancer itself, and as such, these bacteria can be considered as future therapeutic targets