8 research outputs found

    Cote d'Ivoire : private sector dynamics and constraints

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    Private sector assessments provide information and analysis essential to formulating strategies for alleviating constraints on private sector development. They are meant to contribute both to the Bank's policy dialogue with borrowing governments and to the formulation of country assistance strategies. Theauthors examine the constraints on growth faced by private enterprises and how these relate to the policy and institutional environment in Cote d'Ivoire. They employ new data sources as well as surveys of, and in-depth interviews with, private entrepreneurs. They focus on: the effects of taxes and labor regulation on private firms; the impact of public spending on private sector development; and the role of informality in enterprise activity. Following are some of their findings. Tax policy and enforcement impose a heavy financial burden on a shrinking base of formal enterprises, whose regulatory burden has also grown. Taxes are increasingly independent of a firm's profits. This substantial fixed cost may lead some businesses to exit prematurely and may discourage others from formal entry. The overall tax burden on small and medium-size enterprises has risen disproportionately, to levels that discourage formal participation in the economy. Informal firms pay some taxes, but there is considerable leakage in collection. Unnecessary rigidities in labor policies weigh less heavily than expected on firms, because they avoid their full costs through such means as subcontracting and apprenticeships. The restrictions nonetheless limit firms'flexibility of operation and ability to reward merit. In the 1980s, public spending increasingly channeled limited financial resources and human capital toward nondevelopment purposes, including poorly performing enterprises and elite-oriented services, precluding their use in the private sector. The methods of financing public spending (such as withholding taxes and accumulating arrears) have sharply curtailed the capital available to private enterprises. The public sector's dramatic accumulation of arrears and growing reputation as a bad customer are undermining the competitive private supply of goods and services to the government. Government employment policies attract many of the most qualified potential entrepreneurs and business professionals to governmentemployment. Rather than a sharp divide, there is a continuum between small informal and large formal firms. Some medium-size and large formal firms engage in informal behavior, and large firms sometimes lower their costs through links with informal firms - including purchases of inputs that have escaped regulation and taxes.Banks&Banking Reform,Environmental Economics&Policies,Public Sector Economics&Finance,Private Participation in Infrastructure,Microfinance

    How we can go beyond GDP to measure the success of nations

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    For more than 70 years, GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations. But as a measure, GDP is incomplete, as it does not encompass important factors such as well-being. In new research which applies over 40 indicators covering economics, investments and sustainability to 149 countries, Enrique Rueda-Sabater examines how countries perform in converting their GDP growth into improvements in well-being for their citizens. While some countries, such as Brazil, are very good at converting growth into well-being, others like the U.S., are less so. He writes that governments can take lessons from these results on how to devise inclusive long-term growth strategies

    A Fresh Look at Global Governance: Exploring Objective Criteria for Representation

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    The geopolitical world of the 21st century is very different than that of the post‚Äď World War II era. In this new world order, what constitutes a system of global governance? We argue that it has to balance representation, which is made credible by the inclusion of key parts of the global community, and effectiveness, which means involving as small a number of actors as possible while having access to the resources‚ÄĒand clout‚ÄĒto turn decisions/intentions into action/results. In this paper, we propose simple, fundamental criteria‚ÄĒbased on global shares of GDP and population‚ÄĒaround which global governance might be organized. We analyze the role that these criteria would assign to different countries and compare them with some of the key components of the system of governance currently in place‚ÄĒthe Bretton Woods institutions and the United Nations. We also examine the implications of our analysis for membership in the G-20 and the OECD. We find major disparities, which suggest the need for fundamental changes in sharp contrast to the incremental changes that are currently being considered. Overall, our analysis points to the need for a more comprehensive approach, and for much more than incremental solutions.global governance, Bretton Woods, United Nations, G-20, OECD

    Dise√Īo Empresa Muebles Frigor√≠ficos

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    Es un caso para el desarrollo de un Proyecto en claseA la empresa Frostrol por su continua colaboraci√≥nGarc√≠a Sabater, JP.; Garc√≠a Sabater, JJ.; Maheut, JPD.; Perell√≥ Mar√≠n, MR.; Carrascosa L√≥pez, CE.; Asencio Mart√≠nez, A.; Rueda Armengot, C.... (2020). Dise√Īo Empresa Muebles Frigor√≠ficos. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/15589

    Characteristics and predictors of death among 4035 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Spain

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