6,818 research outputs found

    Coal extrusion in the plastic state

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    Continuous feeding of coal in a compressing screw extruder is described as a method of introducing coal into pressurized systems. The method utilizes the property of many bituminous coals of softening at temperatures from 350 to 425 C. Coal is then fed, much in the manner of common thermoplastics, using screw extruders. Data on the viscosity and extruder parameters for extrusion of Illinois No. 6 coal are presented

    Using the Regular Chains Library to build cylindrical algebraic decompositions by projecting and lifting

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    Cylindrical algebraic decomposition (CAD) is an important tool, both for quantifier elimination over the reals and a range of other applications. Traditionally, a CAD is built through a process of projection and lifting to move the problem within Euclidean spaces of changing dimension. Recently, an alternative approach which first decomposes complex space using triangular decomposition before refining to real space has been introduced and implemented within the RegularChains Library of Maple. We here describe a freely available package ProjectionCAD which utilises the routines within the RegularChains Library to build CADs by projection and lifting. We detail how the projection and lifting algorithms were modified to allow this, discuss the motivation and survey the functionality of the package

    Whole body interaction

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    In this workshop we explore the notation of whole body interaction. We bring together different disciplines to create a new research direction for study of this emerging form of interaction

    Statistical Physics of Self-Replication

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    Self-replication is a capacity common to every species of living thing, and simple physical intuition dictates that such a process must invariably be fueled by the production of entropy. Here, we undertake to make this intuition rigorous and quantitative by deriving a lower bound for the amount of heat that is produced during a process of self-replication in a system coupled to a thermal bath. We find that the minimum value for the physically allowed rate of heat production is determined by the growth rate, internal entropy, and durability of the replicator, and we discuss the implications of this finding for bacterial cell division, as well as for the pre-biotic emergence of self-replicating nucleic acids.Comment: 4+ pages, 1 figur

    Anomalous isotopic predissociation in the F³Πu(v=1) state of O₂

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    Using a tunable, narrow-bandwidth vacuum-ultraviolet source based on third-harmonic generation from excimer-pumped dye-laser radiation, the F³Πu←X³Σg-(1,0)photoabsorption cross sections of ¹⁶O₂ and ¹⁸O₂ have been recorded in high resolution. Rotational analyses have been performed and the resultant F(v=1) term values fitted to the ³Π Hamiltonian of Brown and Merer [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 488 (1979)]. A large rotationless isotope effect is observed in the F(v=1)predissociation, wherein the Lorentzian linewidth component for ¹⁸O₂ is a factor of ∼50 smaller than the corresponding ¹⁶O₂linewidth. This effect, a consequence of the nonadiabatic rotationless predissociation mechanism, is described using a coupled-channel treatment of the strongly Rydberg-valence-mixed 3Πu states. Significant J, e/f-parity, and sublevel dependencies observed in the isotopic F(v=1) rotational widths are found to derive from an indirect predissociation mechanism involving an accidental degeneracy with the E³Σ−u(v=3) level, itself strongly predissociated by ³Σ−u Rydberg-valence interactions, together with L-uncoupling (rotational) interactions between the Rydberg components of the F and E states. Transitions into the E(v=3) level are observed directly for the first time, specifically in the ¹⁸O₂ spectrumPartial support was provided by an NSF International Opportunities for Scientists and Engineers Program Grant No. INT-9513350, and Visiting Fellowships for G.S. and J.B.W. at the Australian National University

    Reviewing research evidence and the case of participation in sport and physical recreation by black and minority ethnic communities

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    The paper addresses the implications of using the process of systematic review in the many areas of leisure where there is a dearth of material that would be admitted into conventional Cochrane Reviews. This raises important questions about what constitutes legitimate knowledge, questions that are of critical import not just to leisure scholars, but to the formulation of policy. The search for certainty in an area that lacks conceptual consensus results in an epistemological imperialism that takes a geocentric form. While clearly, there is a need for good research design whatever the style of research, we contend that the wholesale rejection of insightful research is profligate and foolhardy. A mechanism has to be found to capitalise on good quality research of whatever form. In that search, we draw upon our experience of conducting a review of the material available on participation in sport and physical recreation by people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper concludes with a proposal for a more productive review process that makes better use of the full panoply of good quality research available. © 2012 © 2012 Taylor & Francis

    Antero-posterior (AP) pelvis x-ray imaging on a trolley : impact of trolley design, mattress design and radiographer practice on image quality and radiation dose

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    Introduction: Physical and technical differences exist between imaging on an x-ray tabletop and imaging on a trolley. This study evaluates how trolley imaging impacts image quality and radiation dose for an antero-posterior (AP) pelvis projection whilst subsequently exploring means of optimising this imaging examination. Methods: An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom was imaged on a commercially available trolley under various conditions. Variables explored included two mattresses, two image receptor holder positions, three source to image distances (SIDs) and four mAs values. Image quality was evaluated using relative visual grading analysis with the reference image acquired on the x-ray tabletop. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. Effective dose was established using Monte Carlo simulation. Optimisation scores were derived as a figure of merit by dividing effective dose with visual image quality scores. Results: Visual image quality reduced significantly (p < 0.05) whilst effective dose increased significantly (p < 0.05) for images acquired on the trolley using identical acquisition parameters to the reference image. The trolley image with the highest optimisation score was acquired using 130 cm SID, 20 mAs, the standard mattress and platform not elevated. A difference of 12.8 mm was found between the image with the lowest and highest magnification factor (18%). Conclusion: The acquisition parameters used for AP pelvis on the x-ray tabletop are not transferable to trolley imaging and should be modified accordingly to compensate for the differences that exist. Exposure charts should be developed for trolley imaging to ensure optimal image quality at lowest possible dose