103 research outputs found

    Use of quantitative T2 mapping for the assessment of renal cell carcinomas: first results

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    Background: Correct staging and grading of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) is of clinical relevance for the prediction of operability and for individualized patient management. As partial or radial resection with postoperative tumor grading currently remain the methods of choice for the classification of cRCC, non-invasive preoperative alternatives to differentiate lower grade from higher grade cRCC would be beneficial. Methods: This institutional-review-board approved cross-sectional study included twenty-seven patients (8 women, mean age ± SD, 61.3 ± 14.2) with histopathologically confirmed cRCC, graded according to the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP). A native, balanced steady-state free precession T2 mapping sequence (TrueFISP) was performed at 1.5 T. Quantitative T2 values were measured with circular 2D ROIs in the solid tumor portion and also in the normal renal parenchyma (cortex and medulla). To estimate the optimal cut-off T2 value for identifying lower grade cRCC, a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) analysis was performed and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Students’ t-tests were used to evaluate the differences in mean values for continuous variables, while intergroup differences were tested for significance with two-tailed Mann-Whitney-U tests. Results: There were significant differences between the T2 values for lower grade (ISUP 1–2) and higher grade (ISUP 3–4) cRCC (p < 0.001), with higher T2 values for lower grade cRCC compared to higher grade cRCC. The sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of lower grade from higher grade tumors were 83.3% (95% CI: 0.59–0.96) and 88.9% (95% CI: 0.52–1.00), respectively, using a threshold value of ≥110 ms. Intraobserver/interobserver agreement for T2 measurements was excellent/substantial. Conclusions: Native T2 mapping based on a balanced steady-state free precession MR sequence might support an image-based distinction between lower and higher grade cRCC in a two-tier-system and could be a helpful addition to multiparametric imaging

    Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide as a Negative Predictor of Adjuvant Gemcitabine Efficacy in Pancreatic Cancer

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    Adjuvant gemcitabine (aGC) is one standard of care after pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) resection. No biomarker for its efficacy is established. As bacteria mediate gemcitabine resistance, we analyzed whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as surrogate for bacterial colonization is prognostic in PDAC patients treated with aGC or without aGC adjuvant gemcitabine. We detected LPS in 86 tumors from 376 patients, which defined a specific microbiome as revealed by 16 s-rRNA-sequencing. In the 230 aGC patients, LPS conferred worse disease-free survival (8.3 vs 13.7 months; hazard ratio = 1.75, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 2.49; log-rank P = .002) and overall survival (21.7 vs 28.5 months; hazard ratio = 1.80, 95% confidence interval = 1.23 to 2.57; log-rank P = .001) but not in the 146 naGC patients, which was confirmed in an independent validation cohort (n = 178). LPS may serve as a negative predictor for aGC efficacy in PDAC, which suggests a role for microbiome modification to overcome bacteria-mediated chemotherapy resistance

    Diskriminierung aus oekonomischer Sicht

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    Available from Bibliothek des Instituts fuer Weltwirtschaft, ZBW, Duesternbrook Weg 120, D-24105 Kiel W 625 (89) / FIZ - Fachinformationszzentrum Karlsruhe / TIB - Technische InformationsbibliothekSIGLEDEGerman

    Foerdert die Wirtschaftswissenschaft den Verfall der Moral?

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    Available from Bibliothek des Instituts fuer Weltwirtschaft, ZBW, Duesternbrook Weg 120, D-24105 Kiel W 625 (71) / FIZ - Fachinformationszzentrum Karlsruhe / TIB - Technische InformationsbibliothekSIGLEDEGerman

    Fast current-driven domain walls and small skyrmions in a compensated ferrimagnet

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    Spintronics is a research field that aims to understand and control spins on the nanoscale and should enable next-generation data storage and manipulation. One technological and scientific key challenge is to stabilize small spin textures and to move them efficiently with high velocities. For a long time, research focused on ferromagnetic materials, but ferromagnets show fundamental limits for speed and size. Here, we circumvent these limits using compensated ferrimagnets. Using ferrimagnetic Pt/Gd44Co56/TaOx films with a sizeable Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, we realize a current-driven domain wall motion with a speed of 1.3 km s-1 near the angular momentum compensation temperature (TA) and room-temperature-stable skyrmions with minimum diameters close to 10 nm near the magnetic compensation temperature (TM). Both the size and dynamics of the ferrimagnet are in excellent agreement with a simplified effective ferromagnet theory. Our work shows that high-speed, high-density spintronics devices based on current-driven spin textures can be realized using materials in which TA and TM are close together
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