87 research outputs found

    Semi-supervised analysis of myeloid and T cell behavior in ex vivo ovarian tumor slices reveals changes in cell motility after treatments

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    Studies of the high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) tumor microenvironment, the most lethal gynecological cancer, aim to enhance the efficiency of established therapies. Cell motility is an important process of anti-tumor response. Using ex vivo human and mouse HGSOC tumor slices combined with time-lapse imaging, we assessed the motility of CD8+ T and myeloid cells. We developed a semi-supervised analysis of cell movements, identifying four cell behaviors: migrating, long migrating, static, and wobbling. Tumor slices were maintained 24h ex vivo, retaining viability and cell movements. Ex vivo treatments with lipopolysaccharide altered CD8+ T and myeloid cell behavior. In vivo chemotherapy reduced ex vivo cell movements in human and mouse tumors and differentially affected CD8+ T and myeloid cells in chemo-sensitive and chemo-resistant mouse models. Ex vivo tumor slices can extend in vivo mouse studies to human, providing a stepping stone to translate mouse cancer studies to clinical trials

    The <i>RHOA</i> Mutation G17V Does Not Lead to Increased Migration of Human Malignant T Cells but Is Associated with Matrix Remodelling

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    Nodal T-follicular helper cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic-type (AITL), is characterized by constitutional symptoms, advanced-stage disease, and generalized lymphadenopathy. A genetic hallmark of this lymphoma is the frequent occurrence of the RHOA mutation G17V in neoplastic cells, which is observed in around 60% of patients. Because RHOA is involved in both T-cell receptor downstream signalling and cell migration, we hypothesized that the characteristic presentation of AITL could be the result of enhanced tumor cell migration. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the RHOA variant G17V on the migration of neoplastic T cells. We transfected the T-cell lymphoma cell lines HH and HuT78 to stably express the RHOA-G17V variant. RHOA-G17V-expressing T cells did not exhibit enhanced motility compared to empty-vector-transfected cells in microchannels, a 3D collagen gel, or primary human lymphatic tissue. Cells of the HH cell line expressing RHOA-G17V had an increased number of cells with cleaved collagen compared with the empty-vector-transfected cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that the early spread of AITL tumor cells may be related to remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we observed a significant negative correlation between the relative area of collagen in histological sections from 18 primary AITL and the allele frequency of the RHOA-G17V mutation. In conclusion, our results suggest that the characteristic presentation of AITL with early, widespread dissemination of lymphoma cells is not the result of an enhanced migration capacity due to the RHOA-G17V mutation; instead, this feature may rather be related to extracellular matrix remodelling

    ALPL-1 is a target for chimeric antigen receptor therapy in osteosarcoma

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    Abstract Osteosarcoma (OS) remains a dismal malignancy in children and young adults, with poor outcome for metastatic and recurrent disease. Immunotherapies in OS are not as promising as in some other cancer types due to intra-tumor heterogeneity and considerable off-target expression of the potentially targetable proteins. Here we show that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells could successfully target an isoform of alkaline phosphatase, ALPL-1, which is highly and specifically expressed in primary and metastatic OS. The target recognition element of the second-generation CAR construct is based on two antibodies, previously shown to react against OS. T cells transduced with these CAR constructs mediate efficient and effective cytotoxicity against ALPL-positive cells in in vitro settings and in state-of-the-art in vivo orthotopic models of primary and metastatic OS, without unexpected toxicities against hematopoietic stem cells or healthy tissues. In summary, CAR-T cells targeting ALPL-1 show efficiency and specificity in treating OS in preclinical models, paving the path for clinical translation

    Parvimonas micra, an oral pathobiont associated with colorectal cancer, epigenetically reprograms human colonocytes

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    ABSTRACTRecently, an intestinal dysbiotic microbiota with enrichment in oral cavity bacteria has been described in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Here, we characterize and investigate one of these oral pathobionts, the Gram-positive anaerobic coccus Parvimonas micra. We identified two phylotypes (A and B) exhibiting different phenotypes and adhesion capabilities. We observed a strong association of phylotype A with CRC, with its higher abundance in feces and in tumoral tissue compared with the normal homologous colonic mucosa, which was associated with a distinct methylation status of patients. By developing an in vitro hypoxic co-culture system of human primary colonic cells with anaerobic bacteria, we show that P. micra phylotype A alters the DNA methylation profile promoters of key tumor-suppressor genes, oncogenes, and genes involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In colonic mucosa of CRC patients carrying P. micra phylotype A, we found similar DNA methylation alterations, together with significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in pathways involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton, providing evidence of P. micra’s possible role in the carcinogenic process

    Parvimonas micra, an oral pathobiont associated with colorectal cancer, epigenetically reprograms human colonocytes

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    International audienceRecently, an intestinal dysbiotic microbiota with enrichment in oral cavity bacteria has been described in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Here, we characterize and investigate one of these oral pathobionts, the Gram-positive anaerobic coccus Parvimonas micra. We identified two phylotypes (A and B) exhibiting different phenotypes and adhesion capabilities. We observed a strong association of phylotype A with CRC, with its higher abundance in feces and in tumoral tissue compared with the normal homologous colonic mucosa, which was associated with a distinct methylation status of patients. By developing an in vitro hypoxic co-culture system of human primary colonic cells with anaerobic bacteria, we show that P. micra phylotype A alters the DNA methylation profile promoters of key tumor-suppressor genes, oncogenes, and genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In colonic mucosa of CRC patients carrying P. micra phylotype A, we found similar DNA methylation alterations, together with significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in pathways involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton, providing evidence of P. micra's possible role in the carcinogenic process

    Efficacy of Methotrexate Alone vs Methotrexate Plus Low-Dose Prednisone in Patients With Alopecia Areata Totalis or Universalis: A 2-Step Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    IMPORTANCE Poor therapeutic results have been reported in patients with alopecia areata totalis (AT) or universalis (AU), the most severe and disabling types of alopecia areata (AA). Methotrexate, an inexpensive treatment, might be effective in AU and AT. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of methotrexate alone or combined with low-dose prednisone in patients with chronic and recalcitrant AT and AU. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This academic, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted at 8 dermatology departments at university hospitals between March 2014 and December 2016 and included adult patients with AT or AU evolving for more than 6 months despite previous topical and systemic treatments. Data analysis was performed from October 2018 to June 2019. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive methotrexate (25 mg/wk) or placebo for 6 months. Patients with greater than 25% hair regrowth (HR) at month 6 continued their treatment until month 12. Patients with less than 25% HR were rerandomized: methotrexate plus prednisone (20 mg/d for 3 months and 15 mg/d for 3 months) or methotrexate plus placebo of prednisone. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES The primary end point assessed on photos by 4 international experts was complete or almost complete HR (Severity of Alopecia Tool [SALT] score <10) at month 12, while receiving methotrexate alone from the start of the study. Main secondary end points were the rate of major (greater than 50%) HR, quality of life, and treatment tolerance. RESULTS A total of 89 patients (50 female, 39 male; mean [SD] age, 38.6 [14.3] years) with AT (n = 1) or AU (n = 88) were randomized: methotrexate (n = 45) or placebo (n = 44). At month 12, complete or almost complete HR (SALT score <10) was observed in 1 patient and no patient who received methotrexate alone or placebo, respectively, in 7 of 35 (20.0%; 95% CI, 8.4%-37.0%) patients who received methotrexate (for 6 or 12 months) plus prednisone, including 5 of 16 (31.2%; 95% CI, 11.0%-58.7%) who received methotrexate for 12 months and prednisone for 6 months. A greater improvement in quality of life was observed in patients who achieved a complete response compared with nonresponder patients. Two patients in the methotrexate group discontinued the study because of fatigue and nausea, which were observed in 7 (6.9%) and 14 (13.7%) patients receiving methotrexate, respectively. No severe treatment adverse effect was observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this randomized clinical trial, while methotrexate alone mainly allowed partial HR in patients with chronic AT or AU, its combination with low-dose prednisone allowed complete HR in up to 31% of patients. These results seem to be of the same order of magnitude as those recently reported with JAK inhibitors, with a much lower cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02037191

    Parvimonas micra , an oral pathobiont associated with colorectal cancer, epigenetically reprograms human primary intestinal epithelial cells

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    Posté le 14 mars 2022 sur BioRxivRecently, an intestinal dysbiotic microbiota in the feces of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with an enrichment of bacteria belonging to the oral microbiota has been described. Here we characterized and investigated one of these oral pathobionts, the Gram-positive anaerobic coccus Parvimonas micra. We identified two phylotypes (A and B) exhibiting different phenotypes and adhesion capabilities. We observed a strong association of phylotype A with CRC, with its higher abundance in feces and in tumoral tissue compared to the normal homologous colonic mucosa, which was associated with a distinct methylation status of patients. By developing an in vitro hypoxic co-culture system of human primary colonic cells with anaerobic bacteria, we showed that P. micra phylotype A induces modifications in DNA methylation of the promoters of several tumor-suppressor genes, oncogenes, and genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, providing evidence of its possible role in carcinogenesis

    Time to evolve: predicting engineered T cell-associated toxicity with next-generation models

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    Despite promising clinical results in a small subset of malignancies, therapies based on engineered chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor T cells are associated with serious adverse events, including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. These toxicities are sometimes so severe that they significantly hinder the implementation of this therapeutic strategy. For a long time, existing preclinical models failed to predict severe toxicities seen in human clinical trials after engineered T-cell infusion. However, in recent years, there has been a concerted effort to develop models, including humanized mouse models, which can better recapitulate toxicities observed in patients. The Accelerating Development and Improving Access to CAR and TCR-engineered T cell therapy (T2EVOLVE) consortium is a public-private partnership directed at accelerating the preclinical development and increasing access to engineered T-cell therapy for patients with cancer. A key ambition in T2EVOLVE is to design new models and tools with higher predictive value for clinical safety and efficacy, in order to improve and accelerate the selection of lead T-cell products for clinical translation. Herein, we review existing preclinical models that are used to test the safety of engineered T cells. We will also highlight limitations of these models and propose potential measures to improve them

    Time to evolve: predicting engineered T cell-associated toxicity with next-generation models

    No full text
    Despite promising clinical results in a small subset of malignancies, therapies based on engineered chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor T cells are associated with serious adverse events, including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. These toxicities are sometimes so severe that they significantly hinder the implementation of this therapeutic strategy. For a long time, existing preclinical models failed to predict severe toxicities seen in human clinical trials after engineered T-cell infusion. However, in recent years, there has been a concerted effort to develop models, including humanized mouse models, which can better recapitulate toxicities observed in patients. The Accelerating Development and Improving Access to CAR and TCR-engineered T cell therapy (T2EVOLVE) consortium is a public-private partnership directed at accelerating the preclinical development and increasing access to engineered T-cell therapy for patients with cancer. A key ambition in T2EVOLVE is to design new models and tools with higher predictive value for clinical safety and efficacy, in order to improve and accelerate the selection of lead T-cell products for clinical translation. Herein, we review existing preclinical models that are used to test the safety of engineered T cells. We will also highlight limitations of these models and propose potential measures to improve them

    Exploring the immunomodulatory role of virtual memory CD8+ T cells: Role of IFN gamma in tumor growth control

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    International audienceVirtual memory CD8 + T cells (T VM ) have been described as cells with a memory-like phenotype but without previous antigen (Ag) exposure. T VM cells have the ability to respond better to innate stimuli rather than by TCR engagement, producing large amounts of interferon gamma (IFNγ) after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18. As a result of the phenotypic similarity, T VM cells have been erroneously included in the central memory T cell subset for many years. However, they can now be discriminated via the CD49d receptor, which is up-regulated only on conventional memory T cells (T MEM ) and effector T cells (T EFF ) after specific cognate Ag recognition by a TCR. In this work we show that systemic expression of IL-12 plus IL-18 induced an alteration in the normal T VM vs T MEM /T EFF distribution in secondary lymphoid organs and a preferential enrichment of T VM cells in the melanoma (B16) and the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (KPC) tumor models. Using our KPC bearing OT-I mouse model, we observed a significant increase in CD8 + T cell infiltrating the tumor islets after IL-12+IL-18 stimulation with a lower average speed when compared to those from control mice. This finding indicates a stronger interaction of T cells with tumor cells after cytokine stimulation. These results correlate with a significant reduction in tumor size in both tumor models in IL-12+IL-18-treated OT-I mice compared to control OT-I mice. Interestingly, the absence of IFNγ completely abolished the high antitumor capacity induced by IL-12+IL-18 expression, indicating an important role for these cytokines in early tumor growth control. Thus, our studies provide significant new information that indicates an important role of T VM cells in the immune response against cancer
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