996 research outputs found

    Type II Supernovae as Probes of Cosmology

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    - Constraining the cosmological parameters and understanding Dark Energy have tremendous implications for the nature of the Universe and its physical laws. - The pervasive limit of systematic uncertainties reached by cosmography based on Cepheids and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) warrants a search for complementary approaches. - Type II SNe have been shown to offer such a path. Their distances can be well constrained by luminosity-based or geometric methods. Competing, complementary, and concerted efforts are underway, to explore and exploit those objects that are extremely well matched to next generation facilities. Spectroscopic follow-up will be enabled by space- based and 20-40 meter class telescopes. - Some systematic uncertainties of Type II SNe, such as reddening by dust and metallicity effects, are bound to be different from those of SNe Ia. Their stellar progenitors are known, promising better leverage on cosmic evolution. In addition, their rate - which closely tracks the ongoing star formation rate - is expected to rise significantly with look- back time, ensuring an adequate supply of distant examples. - These data will competitively constrain the dark energy equation of state, allow the determination of the Hubble constant to 5%, and promote our understanding of the processes involved in the last dramatic phases of massive stellar evolution.Comment: Science white paper, submitted to the Decadal committee Astro201

    Reasons for accepting or declining to participate in randomized clinical trials for cancer therapy

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    This paper reports on the reasons why patients agreed to or declined entry into randomized trials of cancer following discussions conducted by clinicians in both District General and University Hospitals. Two hundred and four patients completed a 16-item questionnaire following the consultation, of these 112 (55%) were women with breast cancer. Overall results showed that 147 (72.1%) patients accepted entry to a randomized clinical trial (RCT). The main reasons nominated for participating in a trial were that ‚Äėothers will benefit‚Äô (23.1%) and ‚Äėtrust in the doctor‚Äô (21.1%). One of the main reasons for declining trial entry was that patients were ‚Äėworried about randomization‚Äô (19.6%). There was a significantly higher acceptance rate for trials providing active treatment in every arm 98 (80.6%) compared with those trials with a no treatment arm 46 (60.5%), Ōá2test P = 0.003. The study outlines a number of factors that appear to influence a patient‚Äôs decision to accept or decline entry into an RCT of cancer therapy. An important factor is whether or not the trial offers active treatment in all arms of the study. Communication that promotes trust and confidence in the doctor is also a powerful motivating influence. ¬© 2000 Cancer Research Campaig

    Phase 2 of CATALISE: a multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study of problems with language development: Terminology

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    Background Lack of agreement about criteria and terminology for children's language problems affects access to services as well as hindering research and practice. We report the second phase of a study using an online Delphi method to address these issues. In the first phase, we focused on criteria for language disorder. Here we consider terminology. Methods The Delphi method is an iterative process in which an initial set of statements is rated by a panel of experts, who then have the opportunity to view anonymised ratings from other panel members. On this basis they can either revise their views or make a case for their position. The statements are then revised based on panel feedback, and again rated by and commented on by the panel. In this study, feedback from a second round was used to prepare a final set of statements in narrative form. The panel included 57 individuals representing a range of professions and nationalities. Results We achieved at least 78% agreement for 19 of 21 statements within two rounds of ratings. These were collapsed into 12 statements for the final consensus reported here. The term ‚ÄėLanguage Disorder‚Äô is recommended to refer to a profile of difficulties that causes functional impairment in everyday life and is associated with poor prognosis. The term, ‚ÄėDevelopmental Language Disorder‚Äô (DLD) was endorsed for use when the language disorder was not associated with a known biomedical aetiology. It was also agreed that (a) presence of risk factors (neurobiological or environmental) does not preclude a diagnosis of DLD, (b) DLD can co-occur with other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD) and (c) DLD does not require a mismatch between verbal and nonverbal ability. Conclusions This Delphi exercise highlights reasons for disagreements about terminology for language disorders and proposes standard definitions and nomenclature

    Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

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    Background: There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians

    Search for anomalous t t-bar production in the highly-boosted all-hadronic final state

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    A search is presented for a massive particle, generically referred to as a Z', decaying into a t t-bar pair. The search focuses on Z' resonances that are sufficiently massive to produce highly Lorentz-boosted top quarks, which yield collimated decay products that are partially or fully merged into single jets. The analysis uses new methods to analyze jet substructure, providing suppression of the non-top multijet backgrounds. The analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns. Upper limits in the range of 1 pb are set on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction for a topcolor Z' modeled for several widths, as well as for a Randall--Sundrum Kaluza--Klein gluon. In addition, the results constrain any enhancement in t t-bar production beyond expectations of the standard model for t t-bar invariant masses larger than 1 TeV.Comment: Submitted to the Journal of High Energy Physics; this version includes a minor typo correction that will be submitted as an erratu

    Search for new physics in events with opposite-sign leptons, jets, and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV