40 research outputs found

    Incorporation rate of <sup>15</sup>N in (A) plasma and (B) brain proteins.

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    <p>In 5, 14 and 28 day old animals (PND 5, 14, 28) bacteria diet feeding provides a significantly higher incorporation of <sup>15</sup>N in plasma proteins compared to blue-green algae diet; only at the age of 56 days, blue-green algae fed diet animals show the same <sup>15</sup>N incorporation. In the cerebellum, a faster incorporation in adolescence at PND 14 reached significance (**p<0.01; *p<0.05).</p

    Analysis of expression differences by MS analysis.

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    <p><b>A</b>) ESI mass spectrum of the <sup>14</sup>N LAB (red) and <sup>15</sup>N HAB (blue) isotope forms of the GLO1 peptide GFGHIGIAVPDVYSACK in cerebellar tissue. The isotopologue patterns of the <sup>14</sup>N and <sup>15</sup>N peptide signals (m/z) were used for relative quantification with ProRata. <b>B</b>) Extracted ion chromatograms for the GLO1 peptide, extracted from A, showing an upregulation of GLO1 in LAB mice. No smoothing was applied.</p

    Food consumption of algae and bacteria diets of HAB/NAB/LAB dams and pups before weaning.

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    <p>Consumption of blue-green algae diet of HAB dams and their pups and consumption of bacteria diet of HAB/NAB/LAB dams and their pups before weaning (post natal days (PND) 1–24); <sup>14</sup>N diet 14N; <sup>15</sup>N-enriched diet.</p

    Body weight gain on lab chow.

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    <p>Body weight development in Gpr12 knockout (KO; n = 8) mice (red line) and wildtype (WT; n = 8) mice (dotted line) showed no difference at any measured time point.</p

    Depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test (TST).

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    <p>High (HAB), normal (NAB) and low (LAB) anxious animals were fed with <sup>14</sup>N and/or <sup>15</sup>N enriched bacteria diets. <b>A</b>) No behavioral changes due to diet <i>per se</i> were found for animals fed with bacteria diet compared to the animals of the respective lines of the HAB/NAB/LAB standard breeding of the same generation (dotted lines and indicated in <b>B</b>) as percentage difference of the standard breeding). However, <sup>15</sup>N fed HAB animals showed a strongly reduced immobility, indicating depression-like behavior, compared to <sup>14</sup>N fed HABs (**p<0.01). B) This differed significantly from the standard HAB/NAB/LAB breeding (*p<0.05). Due to division by zero, no value is given for <sup>14</sup>N fed LAB animals in relation to the standard breeding: values are <sup>14</sup>N LAB 0.53±0.3 sec vs. standard LAB 4.06±1.5 sec.</p

    Body weight gain on high-fat diet.

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    <p>Body weight development in Gpr12 knockout (KO; n = 8) mice (red line) and wildtype (WT; n = 8) mice (dotted line) fed with lab chow, high-fat diet or after fasting showed no difference at any measured time point.</p

    Energy expenditure.

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    <p>(A) Relative energy expenditure (EE), (B) respiratory exchange rate (RER) and (C) relative food intake (FI) of Gpr12 knockout (KO; n = 8) mice (red line) and wildtype (WT; n = 8) mice (dotted line). Whereas EE was significantly different between Gor12 KO and WT, RER and FI did not differ (2-way ANOVA with factors time and genotype; **p<0.01).</p

    Phosphorylation of NMDA NR2B subunits is reduced in <i>Nrg1</i> TM HET mice, but the ketamine-induced reduction in NR2B phosphorylation observed in WT mice is not apparent in the mutants.

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    <p><b>A)</b> Representative Western blot image. <b>B)</b> Total cortical NR2B protein is not affected by genotype or treatment, but phosphorylation of the NR2B Y1472 residue is reduced in <i>Nrg1</i> TM HET mice. Ketamine reduces phosphorylation in WT, but not in <i>Nrg1</i> TM HET mice (**p<0.01).</p
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