6 research outputs found

    Reference values for local arterial stiffness. Part A: carotid artery

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    Non-invasive measures of common carotid artery properties, such as diameter and distension, and pulse pressure, have been widely used to determine carotid artery distensibility coefficient - a measure of carotid stiffness (stiffness ∼1/distensibility coefficient). Carotid stiffness has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may therefore be a useful intermediate marker for CVD. We aimed to establish age and sex-specific reference intervals of carotid stiffness

    Reference values for local arterial stiffness. Part B: femoral artery

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    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness, representing mainly aortic stiffness. As compared with the elastic carotid and aorta, the more muscular femoral artery may be differently associated with cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs), or, as shown in a recent study, provide additional predictive information beyond carotid-femoral PWV. Still, clinical application is hampered by the absence of reference values. Therefore, our aim was to establish age and sex-specific reference values for femoral stiffness in healthy individuals and to investigate the associations with CV-RFs

    Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

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    Background: Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. Objective: To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. Methods: This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. Results: The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). Conclusion: In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure. The carotid artery structure was directly related to aortic stiffness, which was inversely related to the carotid artery functional property

    Reference intervals for common carotid intima-medi thickness measured with echotracking: Relation with risk factors

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    Aims Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCIMT) is widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, given its predictive association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The interpretation of CCIMT values has been hampered by the absence of reference values, however. We therefore aimed to establish reference intervals of CCIMT, obtained using the probably most accurate method at present (i.e. echotracking), to help interpretation of these measures. Methods and results We combined CCIMT data obtained by echotracking on 24 871 individuals (53% men; age range 15-101 years) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD, cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs), and BP-, lipid-, and/or glucose-lowering medication constituted a healthy sub-population (n 1/4 4234) used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of CCIMT across age. With these equations, we generated CCIMT Z-scores in different reference subpopulations, thereby allowing for a standardized comparison between observed and predicted ('normal') values from individuals of the same age and sex. In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n 1/4 14 609), and in men and women, respectively, CCIMT Z-scores were independently associated with systolic blood pressure [standardized bs 0.19 (95% CI: 0.16-0.22) and 0.18 (0.15-0.21)], smoking [0.25 (0.19-0.31) and 0.11 (0.04-0.18)], diabetes [0.19 (0.05-0.33) and 0.19 (0.02-0.36)], total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio [0.07 (0.04-0.10) and 0.05 (0.02-0.09)], and body mass index [0.14 (0.12-0.17) and 0.07 (0.04-0.10)]. Conclusion We estimated age- and sex-specific percentiles of CCIMT in a healthy population and assessed the association of CVRFs with CCIMT Z-scores, which enables comparison of IMT values for (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures obtained both in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Author All rights reserved

    Determinants of functional and structural properties of large arteries in healthy adults

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    Alterações das propriedades funcionais e estruturais de grandes artérias são correlacionadas à maior risco cardiovascular em diferentes populações. Recentes diretrizes europeias e brasileiras de hipertensão arterial incluem avaliações da espessura íntima medial (EIM) de carótida e da velocidade de onda de pulso (VOP) aórtica como métodos para avaliação de doença subclínica do paciente hipertenso. Estabelecer valores de referência dos métodos de avaliação da estrutura e da função arteriais e os principais determinantes clínicos e demográficos dos parâmetros obtidos com estes métodos, além de suas correlações, em indivíduos adultos saudáveis, é importante para melhor estratificação dos pacientes. Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar em indivíduos adultos saudáveis: 1. a distribuição dos valores de VOP aórtica e do diâmetro, da espessura íntima medial e da distensão relativa da artéria carótida, para definir parâmetros de referência. 2. os principais determinantes demográficos e clínicos destes parâmetros e suas correlações.Foram avaliados 210 indivíduos (54% mulheres, idade média 44±13anos) sem história ou evidência de doença cardiovascular atual. A pressão arterial (PA) foi aferida por aparelho automático Omron (HEM 705 CP) com o indivíduo sentado. A medida automática da VOP carótida-femural foi feita pelo aparelho Complior®. As propriedades funcionais e estruturais da carótida (distensão, diâmetro e EIM) foram avaliadas por ultrassom de radiofrequência (WTS®). Todos os indivíduos realizaram avaliação bioquímica.As médias dos valores foram: VOP aórtica (m/s) = 8,7±1,5, diâmetro da carótida (m) = 6617±985, EIM da carótida (m) = 601±131 e distensão relativa da carótida (%) = 5,3±2,1. Não houve diferenças significativas nos parâmetros entre homens e mulheres, assim como entre as raças. Na análise multivariada, os fatores independentemente relacionados aos parâmetros vasculares foram: VOP aórtica = idade (r2 0,22/ p < 0,01), EIM da carótida = idade (r2 0,17 / p < 0,01), diâmetro da carótida = creatinina (r2 0,16 / p = 0,02), distensão relativa da carótida = idade (r2 0,37 / p < 0,01) e pressão arterial diastólica PAD - (r2 0,09 / p < 0,01). Observamos que a VOP teve correlação positiva com EIM (r² - 0,06 / p < 0,01), e correlação inversa com a distensão relativa da carótida (r² - 0,08 / p < 0,01). Em conclusão, em indivíduos saudáveis o principal fator relacionado à medida da rigidez aórtica é a idade, enquanto que a idade e a PAD foram relacionados com a medida funcional da carótida, e o nível de creatinina relacionado ao diâmetro. A estrutura da artéria carótida é diretamente relacionada à medida da rigidez aórtica, que por sua vez é inversamente relacionada à capacidade funcional da artéria carótidaChanges of structural and functional properties of large arteries are correlated with increased cardiovascular risk in different populations. Recent European and Brazilian guidelines for hypertension include assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) for evaluation of subclinical disease in hypertensive patients. Thus, to establish reference values for methods that evaluate arterial properties and the main clinical and demographic determinants of the parameters obtained with these methods, as well as their correlation in healthy adult subjects, it is important for better stratification of patients. The objectives of the study were to evaluate in healthy adult subjects: 1. the distribution of aortic PWV values and of the diameter, intima-media thickness and distension of the carotid artery to obtain reference parameters. 2. the main demographic and clinical determinants of these parameters and their correlations. We evaluated 210 subjects (54% women, mean age 44 ± 13anos) with no history or current evidence of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by automatic device Omron (HEM 705 CP) with the subject in a sitting position. The automatic measurement of carotid-femoral PWV was performed by Complior® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery (distension, diameter and IMT) were assessed by ultrasound radiofrequency (WTS®). All subjects underwent biochemical evaluation. The mean values were: aortic PWV (m / s) = 8.7±1.5, carotid diameter (m) = 6617±985, carotid IMT (m) = 601±131 and distension on carotid (% ) = 5.3±2.1. There were no significant differences in parameters according gender or race. In multivariate analysis, the independent factors related to arterial parameters were: aortic PWV = age (r2 - 0.22 / p -< 0.01), carotid IMT = age (r2 - 0.17 / p <0.01 ), carotid diameter = creatinine (r2 - 0.16 / p = 0.02), carotid distension = age (r2 - 0.37 / p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure - DBP - (r2 - 0.09 / p< 0.01). We also found that aortic PWV was positively correlated with IMT (r² - 0.06 / p < 0.01) and inversely correlated with the relative distension of the carotid (r² - 0.08 / p < 0.01). In conclusion, in healthy subjects the main factor related to aortic stiffness is age, whereas age and DBP were related to functional measurement of the carotid artery, and creatinine levels related to the diameter. The structure of the carotid artery is directly related to the aortic stiffness, which in turn is inversely related to the functional capacity of the carotid artery
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