130 research outputs found

    Facing elderly recipients in combined liver-kidney transplantation

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    Xenotransplantation: past, present, and future

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    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the progress in the field of xenotransplantation with special attention to most recent encouraging findings which will eventually bring xenotransplantation to the clinic in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: Starting from early 2000, with the introduction of galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal)-knockout pigs, prolonged survival especially in heart and kidney xenotransplantation was recorded. However, remaining antibody barriers to non-Gal antigens continue to be the hurdle to overcome. The production of genetically engineered pigs was difficult requiring prolonged time. However, advances in gene editing, such as zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and most recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology made the production of genetically engineered pigs easier and available to more researchers. Today, the survival of pig-to-nonhuman primate heterotopic heart, kidney, and islet xenotransplantation reached more than 900, more than 400, and more than 600 days, respectively. The availability of multiple-gene pigs (five or six genetic modifications) and/or newer costimulation blockade agents significantly contributed to this success. Now, the field is getting ready for clinical trials with an international consensus. SUMMARY: Clinical trials in cellular or solid organ xenotransplantation are getting closer with convincing preclinical data from many centers. The next decade will show us new achievements and additional barriers in clinical xenotransplantation

    New prognostic indicators in surgery

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    The need for xenotransplantation as a source of organs and cells for clinical transplantation

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    The limited availability of deceased human organs and cells for the purposes of clinical transplantation remains critical worldwide. Despite the increasing utilization of 'high-risk', 'marginal', or 'extended criteria' deceased donors, in the U.S. each day 30 patients either die or are removed from the waiting list because they become too sick to undergo organ transplantation. In certain other countries, where there is cultural resistance to deceased donation, e.g., Japan, the increased utilization of living donors, e.g., of a single kidney or partial liver, only very partially addresses the organ shortage. For transplants of tissues and cells, e.g., pancreatic islet transplantation for patients with diabetes, and corneal transplantation for patients with corneal blindness (whose numbers worldwide are potentially in the millions), allotransplantation will never prove a sufficient source. There is an urgent need for an alternative source of organs and cells. The pig could prove to be a satisfactory source, and clinical xenotransplantation using pig organs or cells, particularly with the advantages provided by genetic engineering to provide resistance to the human immune response, may resolve the organ shortage. The physiologic compatibilities and incompatibilities of the pig and the human are briefly reviewed

    A brief history of clinical xenotransplantation

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    Between the 17th and 20th centuries, blood was transfused from various animal species into patients with a variety of pathological conditions. Skin grafts were carried out in the 19th century, with grafts from a variety of animals, with frogs being the most popular. In the 1920s, Voronoff advocated the transplantation of slices of chimpanzee testis into elderly men, believing that the hormones produced by the testis would rejuvenate his patients. In 1963-4, when human organs were not available and dialysis was not yet in use, Reemtsma transplanted chimpanzee kidneys into 13 patients, one of whom returned to work for almost 9 months before suddenly dying from what was believed to be an electrolyte disturbance. The first heart transplant in a human ever performed was by Hardy in 1964, using a chimpanzee heart, but the patient died within 2 h. Starzl carried out the first chimpanzee-to-human liver transplantation in 1966; in 1992 he obtained patient survival for 70 days following a baboon liver transplant. The first clinical pig islet transplant was carried out by Groth in 1993. Today, genetically-modified pigs offer hope of a limitless supply of organs and cells for those in need of a transplant

    Immunobiological barriers to xenotransplantation

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    Binding of natural anti-pig antibodies in humans and nonhuman primates to carbohydrate antigens expressed on the transplanted pig organ, the most important of which is galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal), activate the complement cascade, which results in destruction of the graft within minutes or hours, known as hyperacute rejection. Even if antibody is removed from the recipient's blood by plasmapheresis, recovery of antibody is associated with acute humoral xenograft rejection. If immunosuppressive therapy is inadequate, the development of high levels of T cell-dependent elicited anti-pig IgG similarly results in graft destruction, though classical acute cellular rejection is rarely seen. Vascular endothelial activation by low levels of anti-nonGal antibody, coupled with dysregulation of the coagulation-anticoagulation systems between pigs and primates, leads to a thrombotic microangiopathy in the graft that may be associated with a consumptive coagulopathy in the recipient. The most successful approach to overcoming these barriers is by genetically-engineering the pig to provide it with resistance to the human humoral and cellular immune responses and to correct the coagulation discrepancies between the two species. Organs and cells from pigs that (i) do not express the important Gal antigen, (ii) express a human complement-regulatory protein, and (iii) express a human coagulation-regulatory protein, when combined with an effective immunosuppressive regimen, have been associated with prolonged pig graft survival in nonhuman primates

    FABRICA: A Bioreactor Platform for Printing, Perfusing, Observing, & Stimulating 3D Tissues

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    We are introducing the FABRICA, a bioprinter-agnostic 3D-printed bioreactor platform designed for 3D-bioprinted tissue construct culture, perfusion, observation, and analysis. The computer-designed FABRICA was 3D-printed with biocompatible material and used for two studies: (1) Flow Profile Study: perfused 5 different media through a synthetic 3D-bioprinted construct and ultrasonically analyzed the flow profile at increasing volumetric flow rates (VFR); (2) Construct Perfusion Study: perfused a 3D-bioprinted tissue construct for a week and compared histologically with a non-perfused control. For the flow profile study, construct VFR increased with increasing pump VFR. Water and other media increased VFR significantly while human and pig blood showed shallow increases. For the construct perfusion study, we confirmed more viable cells in perfused 3D-bioprinted tissue compared to control. The FABRICA can be used to visualize constructs during 3D-bioprinting, incubation, and to control and ultrasonically analyze perfusion, aseptically in real-time, making the FABRICA tunable for different tissues

    The role of genetically engineered pigs in xenotransplantation research

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    There is a critical shortage in the number of deceased human organs that become available for the purposes of clinical transplantation. This problem might be resolved by the transplantation of organs from pigs genetically engineered to protect them from the human immune response. The pathobiological barriers to successful pig organ transplantation in primates include activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, coagulation dysregulation and inflammation. Genetic engineering of the pig as an organ source has increased the survival of the transplanted pig heart, kidney, islet and corneal graft in non-human primates (NHPs) from minutes to months or occasionally years. Genetic engineering may also contribute to any physiological barriers that might be identified, as well as to reducing the risks of transfer of a potentially infectious micro-organism with the organ. There are now an estimated 40 or more genetic alterations that have been carried out in pigs, with some pigs expressing five or six manipulations. With the new technology now available, it will become increasingly common for a pig to express even more genetic manipulations, and these could be tested in the pig-to-NHP models to assess their efficacy and benefit. It is therefore likely that clinical trials of pig kidney, heart and islet transplantation will become feasible in the near futur
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