49 research outputs found

    Experimental Evaluation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Neem Methyl Ester

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    The dwindling fossil fuel resources and the environmental degradation have spurred research interest to find better renewable alternative energy sources. Biodiesel is one such viable promising alternative fuel, which can be extracted from various renewable vegetable oils. In the present study, biodiesel extracted from neem oil is characterized for engine performance and emission analysis is done at various compression ratios (CR) and fuel blends. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the blend B20 is considerably higher than that of diesel at CR 18, 20, and 22. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) increases with diesel blends due to a higher calorific value of diesel in comparison with biodiesel. All the biodiesel blends had lower carbon monoxide (CO) emissions compared with diesel, which indicates better combustion due to the presence of inherent oxygen. At lower CRs, the in-cylinder temperature is lower, which in turn reduces the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. The overall engine performance is optimum at CR of 18 with the NB20 fuel blend

    Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

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    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same regio

    Safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines given as fourth-dose boosters following two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 and a third dose of BNT162b2 (COV-BOOST): a multicentre, blinded, phase 2, randomised trial

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    Off-pump atrial septostomy with thoracoscopic scissors under transesophageal echocardiography guidance

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    Selected children with congenital heart defects undergoing palliative closed heart procedures require a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) run only for the purpose of creating an inter-atrial communication. We report a simple technique of atrial septostomy using thoracoscopy scissors under transesophageal echocardiography guidance without the need for CPB

    Mental health in BME groups with diabetes: an overlooked issue?

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    A recent commentary in The Lancet emphasised the effect of mental health on diabetes. We would particularly like to highlight the mental health issues of black and minority ethnic (BME) populations with diabetes in the UK, owing to the considerably higher prevalence of diabetes and mental illness among BME populations compared with the national average