238 research outputs found

    Law As Literature: Within the Parameters of Literary and Linguistic Theory

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    This paper works to contribute to the discussion regarding literary interpretation and legal interpretation. Forms of literature and law offer meaning and value in its application to society and its individuals. Literary and linguistic theories offer insight to the academic approaches of interpretation

    A systematized spatial review of global protected area soundscape research

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    Protected areas (PA) represent the primary mechanism to protect global ecosystems; yet current capacities often lead to geographic imbalances for PA management around the world. PA soundscapes have proved a valuable element to inform effective management, as natural sounds are important for healthy natural systems and rewarding visitor experiences. This article employed a systematized literature review of PA soundscape research, matching the areas of study described for the 218 articles, with PA from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). The studies took place in 372 PA, which were cataloged by geographic location and size where possible, country, and continent. Data charting included extracted keywords, research objectives, methods, outcomes and future research needs. Numeric and geographic analysis focused on understanding the nature, extent, and distribution of the studies, while thematic analysis was applied to identify trends with respect to methods, outcomes, and future research. Study results identified content and geographic imbalances between studies in tropical and temperate zones, terrestrial and marine environments, and the Global South and North. Discussion considers how global initiatives may support information and resource sharing that facilitates knowledge and capacity transfer between the two regions

    Foresight science in conservation: Tools, barriers, and mainstreaming opportunities.

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    Funder: Canadian Network for Research and Innovation in Machining Technology, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of CanadaFunder: MitacsForesight science is a systematic approach to generate future predictions for planning and management by drawing upon analytical and predictive tools to understand the past and present, while providing insights about the future. To illustrate the application of foresight science in conservation, we present three case studies: identification of emerging risks to conservation, conservation of at-risk species, and aid in the development of management strategies for multiple stressors. We highlight barriers to mainstreaming foresight science in conservation including knowledge accessibility/organization, communication across diverse stakeholders/decision makers, and organizational capacity. Finally, we investigate opportunities for mainstreaming foresight science including continued advocacy to showcase its application, incorporating emerging technologies (i.e., artificial intelligence) to increase capacity/decrease costs, and increasing education/training in foresight science via specialized courses and curricula for trainees and practicing professionals. We argue that failure to mainstream foresight science will hinder the ability to achieve future conservation objectives in the Anthropocene

    Soundscapes and protected area conservation: Are noises in nature making people complacent?

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    This study explores how existing connections to natural places may affect PA visitors’ experiences and perceptions within the PA. Specifically, outside-the-PA soundscape perceptions are examined to better understand how their experiences outside the PA may affect perceptions of PA soundscapes and visitors’ ability to effectively contribute to conservation monitoring. Survey research (n=389) of recent urban visitors to the Chilean Coyhaique National Reserve (CNR) in Patagonia unpacked perceptions of the acoustic environments within the places where participants felt most connected to nature, including landscape features, favorite and prevalent sounds, and acceptability of particular anthrophonic sounds. Favorite and prevalent sounds were open-coded, and anthrophonic sounds were rated for prevalence and acceptability. The mountain landscape features and sounds (‘wind’, ‘running water’,‘ birds’) participants described as prominent within the places where they felt most connected to nature aligned well with CNR characteristics. Participants who ‘sometimes’‘/often’ heard certain anthropogenic sounds (vehicles, aircraft, machines, city sounds), within the places where they felt most connected to nature, rated those sounds as more acceptable than participants who reported ‘never’ hearing them, raising concerns about complacency toward anthrophony in natural settings. Continued research efforts are warranted to better understand visitors’ frames of reference, their influence on the reliability of social norm data for PA soundscape monitoring, and their influence on PA managers’ ability to protect conservation values

    An ethical engagement: creative practice research, the academy and professional codes of conduct

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    The Author(s) 2020. This paper reports on the experiences of creative practice graduate researchers and academic staff as they seek to comply with the requirements of the Australian National Statement on the Ethical Conduct of Research Involving Humans. The research was conducted over a two-year period (2015 to 2017) as part of a wider project \u27iDARE - Developing New Approaches to Ethics and Research Integrity Training through Challenges Presented by Creative Practice Research\u27. The research identified the appreciation of ethics that the participants acquired through their experience of institutional research ethics procedures at their university. It also revealed a disjunction between the concepts of ethics acquired through meeting institutional research ethics requirements, the notion of ethics that many researchers adopt in their own professional creative practice and the contents of professional codes of conduct. A key finding of the research was that to prepare creative practice graduates for ethical decision-making in their professional lives, research ethics training in universities should be broadened to encompass a variety of contexts and enable researchers to develop skills in ethical know-how

    Sympathetic world-making : drawing-out ecological-empathy

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    This article reflects on an experiment in drawing, titled Surrogate Drawing, in which an assemblage of people, materials and artefacts engaged in a live, improvisational process of co-production. The group was interested in how empathy might be cultivated through architectural drawing. The article develops an argument across three main parts. The first part offers a brief overview of the drawing experiment, situated relative to some key assumptions and conventions of architectural drawing, via the work of Robin Evans and others. In particular, this involved unsettling the idea of translation and its underlying premise of projection—a premise that resonates with the concept of empathy. The second part moves into a series of first-person accounts, one from each author. This experiential access reveals degrees of complexity that question the model of projection as a primary operative principle for either drawing or empathy, calling for an alternative conceptual framework. The third part offers such an alternative, via Jakob von Uexküll’s work concerning the Umwelt, or perceptual life-worlds. Via Uexküll we come to better understand drawing as less of a process of translation or transmission, and more of a process of creative world-making. Through Uexküll’s depiction of the Umwelt as a ‘bubble,’ the paper offers an alternative diagrammatic to that of projective geometries: that of a foaming. The manifestly collective world-making inherent in this drawing experiment leads us to conclude by opening up something we discuss as ‘ecological empathy’—or sympathy. It is proposed that drawing, if conceptually liberated from projective models, may be an important technique to cultivate ecological-empathy, or sympathy. This points toward a way that architecture might be reoriented toward sympathetic world-making

    An Ethical Engagement: Creative Practice Research, the Academy and Professional Codes of Conduct

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    This paper reports on the experiences of creative practice graduate researchers and academic staff as they seek to comply with the requirements of the Australian National Statement on the Ethical Conduct of Research Involving Humans. The research was conducted over a two-year period (2015 to 2017) as part of a wider project ‘iDARE – Developing New Approaches to Ethics and Research Integrity Training through Challenges Presented by Creative Practice Research’. The research identified the appreciation of ethics that the participants acquired through their experience of institutional research ethics procedures at their university. It also revealed a disjunction between the concepts of ethics acquired through meeting institutional research ethics requirements, the notion of ethics that many researchers adopt in their own professional creative practice and the contents of professional codes of conduct. A key finding of the research was that to prepare creative practice graduates for ethical decision-making in their professional lives, research ethics training in universities should be broadened to encompass a variety of contexts and enable researchers to develop skills in ethical know-how

    Falling into the Surface (toward a materiality of affect)

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    No abstract availableThis article was originally published by Parallel Press, an imprint of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries, as part of The International Journal of Screendance, Volume 2 (2012), Parallel Press. It is made available here with the kind permission of Parallel Press

    Reduced Myocyte Complex N-glycosylation Causes Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Protein glycosylation is an essential posttranslational modification that affects a myriad of physiologic processes. Humans with genetic defects in glycosylation, which result in truncated glycans, often present with significant cardiac deficits. Acquired heart diseases and their associated risk factors were also linked to aberrant glycosylation, highlighting its importance in human cardiac disease. In both cases, the link between causation and corollary remains enigmatic. The glycosyltransferase gene, mannosyl (α-1,3-)-glycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Mgat1), whose product, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (GlcNAcT1) is necessary for the formation of hybrid and complex N-glycan structures in the medial Golgi, was shown to be at reduced levels in human end-stage cardiomyopathy, thus making Mgat1 an attractive target for investigating the role of hybrid/complex N-glycosylation in cardiac pathogenesis. Here, we created a cardiomyocyte-specific Mgatl knockout (KO) mouse to establish a model useful in exploring the relationship between hybrid/complex N-glycosylation and cardiac function and disease. Biochemical and glycomic analyses showed that Mgat1KO cardiomyocytes produce predominately truncated N-glycan structures. All Mgat1KO mice died significantly younger than control mice and demonstrated chamber dilation and systolic dysfunction resembling human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Data also indicate that a cardiomyocyte L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (Cav) subunit (α281) is a GlcNAcT1 target, and Mgat1KO Cav activity is shifted to more-depolarized membrane potentials. Consistently, Mgat1KO cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling is altered and contraction is dyssynchronous compared with controls. The data demonstrate that reduced hybrid/complex N-glycosylation contributes to aberrant cardiac function at whole-heart and myocyte levels drawing a direct link between altered glycosylation and heart disease. Thus, the Mgat1KO provides a model for investigating the relationship between systemic reductions in glycosylation and cardiac disease, showing that clinically relevant changes in cardiomyocyte hybrid/complex N-glycosylation are sufficient to cause DCM and early death.—Ednie, A. R., Deng, W., Yip, K.-P., Bennett, E. S. Reduced myocyte complex N-glycosylation causes dilated cardiomyopathy. FASEB J. 33, 1248–1261 (2019). www.fasebj.or
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