1,287 research outputs found

    A Novel Approach for Estimating Ovarian Cancer Tissue Heterogeneity through the Application of Image Processing Techniques and Artificial Intelligence

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    Purpose: Tumor heterogeneity may be responsible for poor response to treatment and adverse prognosis in women with HGOEC. The purpose of this study is to propose an automated classification system that allows medical experts to automatically identify intratumoral areas of different cellularity indicative of tumor heterogeneity. Methods: Twenty-two patients underwent dedicated pelvic MRI, and a database of 11,095 images was created. After image processing techniques were applied to align and assess the cancerous regions, two specific imaging series were used to extract quantitative features (radiomics). These features were employed to create, through artificial intelligence, an estimator of the highly cellular intratumoral area as defined by arbitrarily selected apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cut-off values (ADC −3 mm2/s). Results: The average recorded accuracy of the proposed automated classification system was equal to 0.86. Conclusion: The proposed classification system for assessing highly cellular intratumoral areas, based on radiomics, may be used as a tool for assessing tumor heterogeneity

    ISARIC-COVID-19 dataset: A Prospective, Standardized, Global Dataset of Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19

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    The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 dataset is one of the largest international databases of prospectively collected clinical data on people hospitalized with COVID-19. This dataset was compiled during the COVID-19 pandemic by a network of hospitals that collect data using the ISARIC-World Health Organization Clinical Characterization Protocol and data tools. The database includes data from more than 705,000 patients, collected in more than 60 countries and 1,500 centres worldwide. Patient data are available from acute hospital admissions with COVID-19 and outpatient follow-ups. The data include signs and symptoms, pre-existing comorbidities, vital signs, chronic and acute treatments, complications, dates of hospitalization and discharge, mortality, viral strains, vaccination status, and other data. Here, we present the dataset characteristics, explain its architecture and how to gain access, and provide tools to facilitate its use

    An international observational study to assess the impact of the Omicron variant emergence on the clinical epidemiology of COVID-19 in hospitalised patients

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    Background: Whilst timely clinical characterisation of infections caused by novel SARS-CoV-2 variants is necessary for evidence-based policy response, individual-level data on infecting variants are typically only available for a minority of patients and settings. Methods: Here, we propose an innovative approach to study changes in COVID-19 hospital presentation and outcomes after the Omicron variant emergence using publicly available population-level data on variant relative frequency to infer SARS-CoV-2 variants likely responsible for clinical cases. We apply this method to data collected by a large international clinical consortium before and after the emergence of the Omicron variant in different countries. Results: Our analysis, that includes more than 100,000 patients from 28 countries, suggests that in many settings patients hospitalised with Omicron variant infection less often presented with commonly reported symptoms compared to patients infected with pre-Omicron variants. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital after Omicron variant emergence had lower mortality compared to patients admitted during the period when Omicron variant was responsible for only a minority of infections (odds ratio in a mixed-effects logistic regression adjusted for likely confounders, 0.67 [95% confidence interval 0.61-0.75]). Qualitatively similar findings were observed in sensitivity analyses with different assumptions on population-level Omicron variant relative frequencies, and in analyses using available individual-level data on infecting variant for a subset of the study population. Conclusions: Although clinical studies with matching viral genomic information should remain a priority, our approach combining publicly available data on variant frequency and a multi-country clinical characterisation dataset with more than 100,000 records allowed analysis of data from a wide range of settings and novel insights on real-world heterogeneity of COVID-19 presentation and clinical outcome

    Real-life Experience With Rituximab-CHOP Every 21 or 14 Days in Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma

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    Background/Aim: Primary mediastinal large Bcell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is an aggressive B-cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whose prognosis has greatly improved since the incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into current therapeutic regimens. Evidence, however, on the optimal time interval between consecutive chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) cycles is still scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy outcomes of the more commonly administered 3-weekly regimens to the biweekly ones in a PMLBCL patients' population, who were mostly treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 21 days (R-CHOP-21) or R-CHOP-14. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied our cohort of consecutively treated PMLBCL patients, focusing on their treatment density, in order to determine possible differences in treatment outcomes. Results: CIT, in the form of both RCHOP- 21 as well as R-CHOP-14 (or similar regimens), is highly active in PMLBCL, with low rates of early treatment failure. In our cohort of patients, R-CHOP-14 did not result in a meaningful improvement of freedom from progression (FFP) or overall survival (OS). Conclusion: Both R-CHOP- 14 and R-CHOP-21 are probably equally effective in PMLBCL, yet further, prospective, randomized studies are warranted to clarify whether dose-dense regimens can be associated with better disease control and long-term results. © 2022 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved

    Liver Transplantation for Pediatric Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review

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    Liver transplantation (LT) is the only potentially curative option for children with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a systematic review of the MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases (end-of-search date: 31 July 2020). Our outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We evaluated the effect of clinically relevant variables on outcomes using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 245 children undergoing LT for HCC were included. DFS data were available for 150 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 92.3%, 89.1%, and 84.5%, respectively. Sixty of the two hundred and thirty-eight patients (25.2%) died over a mean follow up of 46.8 ± 47.4 months. OS data were available for 222 patients and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 87.9%, 78.8%, and 74.3%, respectively. Although no difference was observed between children transplanted within vs. beyond Milan criteria (p = 0.15), superior OS was observed in children transplanted within vs. beyond UCSF criteria (p = 0.02). LT can yield favorable outcomes for pediatric HCC beyond Milan but not beyond UCSF criteria. Further research is required to determine appropriate LT selection criteria for pediatric HCC

    Real-life Experience With Rituximab-CHOP Every 21 or 14 Days in Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma

    No full text
    Background/Aim: Primary mediastinal large Bcell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is an aggressive B-cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whose prognosis has greatly improved since the incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into current therapeutic regimens. Evidence, however, on the optimal time interval between consecutive chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) cycles is still scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy outcomes of the more commonly administered 3-weekly regimens to the biweekly ones in a PMLBCL patients' population, who were mostly treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 21 days (R-CHOP-21) or R-CHOP-14. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied our cohort of consecutively treated PMLBCL patients, focusing on their treatment density, in order to determine possible differences in treatment outcomes. Results: CIT, in the form of both RCHOP- 21 as well as R-CHOP-14 (or similar regimens), is highly active in PMLBCL, with low rates of early treatment failure. In our cohort of patients, R-CHOP-14 did not result in a meaningful improvement of freedom from progression (FFP) or overall survival (OS). Conclusion: Both R-CHOP- 14 and R-CHOP-21 are probably equally effective in PMLBCL, yet further, prospective, randomized studies are warranted to clarify whether dose-dense regimens can be associated with better disease control and long-term results. © 2022 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved

    Solvents for Membrane-Based Post-Combustion CO<sub>2</sub> Capture for Potential Application in the Marine Environment

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    Carbon capture on-board ships represents a powerful technological measure in order for the shipping industry to meet the very stringent GHG emission reduction requirements. Operation within the ship environment introduces a number of constraints associated mainly with space, energy supply, and safety which have to be addressed using compact yet efficient solutions. To this end, solvent-based membrane CO2 capture offers several advantages and has the necessary technological maturity for on-board installation. Solvent choice remains a critical issue both for reasons associated with process efficiency as well as on-board safety. In this paper, we present an up-to-date comprehensive review of the different solvents that can be used for post-combustion CO2 capture. Furthermore, we investigated the solvents’ performance as determined by their inherent characteristics, properties, and behavior for a range of operating conditions against the strict shipping requirements. A preliminary qualitative comparative assessment was carried out based on appropriately selected key performance indicators (KPIs) pertinent to the requirements of the shipping industry. The identified solvent classes were compared using the most critical KPIs for system integration with the ship. It was concluded that at present, no solvent category can efficiently address all the requirements of the ship. However, widely used solvents such as secondary amines showed relatively good compatibility with the majority of the introduced KPIs. On the other hand, more recently developed molecules, such as phase change solvents and ionic liquids, can easily prevail over the vast majority of the identified solvents as long as they are brought to the same level of technological maturity with benchmark solvents. Such a conclusion points toward the need for accelerating research on more tailor-made and performance-targeted solvents

    Solvents for Membrane-Based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture for Potential Application in the Marine Environment

    No full text
    Carbon capture on-board ships represents a powerful technological measure in order for the shipping industry to meet the very stringent GHG emission reduction requirements. Operation within the ship environment introduces a number of constraints associated mainly with space, energy supply, and safety which have to be addressed using compact yet efficient solutions. To this end, solvent-based membrane CO2 capture offers several advantages and has the necessary technological maturity for on-board installation. Solvent choice remains a critical issue both for reasons associated with process efficiency as well as on-board safety. In this paper, we present an up-to-date comprehensive review of the different solvents that can be used for post-combustion CO2 capture. Furthermore, we investigated the solvents&rsquo; performance as determined by their inherent characteristics, properties, and behavior for a range of operating conditions against the strict shipping requirements. A preliminary qualitative comparative assessment was carried out based on appropriately selected key performance indicators (KPIs) pertinent to the requirements of the shipping industry. The identified solvent classes were compared using the most critical KPIs for system integration with the ship. It was concluded that at present, no solvent category can efficiently address all the requirements of the ship. However, widely used solvents such as secondary amines showed relatively good compatibility with the majority of the introduced KPIs. On the other hand, more recently developed molecules, such as phase change solvents and ionic liquids, can easily prevail over the vast majority of the identified solvents as long as they are brought to the same level of technological maturity with benchmark solvents. Such a conclusion points toward the need for accelerating research on more tailor-made and performance-targeted solvents

    Presentation and surgical management of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

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    Background: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare benign chronic inflammatory disease of the gallbladder that often presents as cholecystitis and most of the times requires surgical management. In addition, distinguishing XGC from gallbladder cancer preoperatively is still a challenge. The aim of the present systematic review was to outline the clinical presentation and surgical approach of XGC. Data sources: The present systematic review was designed using the PRISMA and AMSTAR guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Google Scholar databases from inception until June 2020. Results: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy rate (34%) was almost equal to the open cholecystectomy rate (47%) for XGC. An important conversion rate (35%) was observed as well. The XGC cases treated by surgery were associated with low mortality (0.3%), limited intraoperative blood loss (58-270 mL), low complication rates (2%–6%), along with extended operative time (82.6–120 minutes for laparoscopic and 59.6–240 minutes for open cholecystectomy) and hospital stay (3–9 days after laparoscopic and 8.3–18 days after open cholecystectomy). Intraoperative findings during cholecystectomies for XGC included empyema or Mirizzi syndrome. In addition, complex surgical procedures, like wedge hepatic resections and bile duct excision were required during operations for XGC. Conclusions: XGC seemed to be a rare, benign inflammatory disease that presents similar features as gallbladder cancer. The mortality and complication rates of XGC were low, despite the complex surgical procedures that might be required in some cases. © 202
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