16 research outputs found

    Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2,-3,-10, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are associated with vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes : the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study

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    Background Impaired regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, −2, −3, −9, −10 and TIMP-1, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or microvascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients. We also evaluated to which extent these associations could be explained by low-grade inflammation (LGI) or endothelial dysfunction (ED). Methods 493 type 1 diabetes patients (39.5 ± 9.9 years old, 51% men) from the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study were included. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate differences in plasma levels of MMP-1, −2, −3, −9, −10, and TIMP-1 between patients with and without CVD, albuminuria or retinopathy. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, Hba1c and additionally for other cardiovascular risk factors including LGI and ED. Results Patients with CVD (n = 118) showed significantly higher levels of TIMP-1 [β = 0.32 SD (95%CI: 0.12; 0.52)], but not of MMPs, than patients without CVD (n = 375). Higher plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10 and TIMP-1 were associated with higher levels of albuminuria (p-trends were 0.028, 0.004, 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). Severity of retinopathy was significantly associated with higher levels of MMP-2 (p-trend = 0.017). These associations remained significant after further adjustment for markers of LGI and ED. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that impaired regulation of matrix remodeling by actions of MMP-2, -3 and-10 and TIMP-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes

    Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -3, -10, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are associated with vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes: The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study

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    EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group member Dorothy M. Keefe for the University of Adelaide.BACKGROUND Impaired regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, −2, −3, −9, −10 and TIMP-1, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or microvascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients. We also evaluated to which extent these associations could be explained by low-grade inflammation (LGI) or endothelial dysfunction (ED). METHODS 493 type 1 diabetes patients (39.5 ± 9.9 years old, 51% men) from the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study were included. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate differences in plasma levels of MMP-1, −2, −3, −9, −10, and TIMP-1 between patients with and without CVD, albuminuria or retinopathy. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, Hba1c and additionally for other cardiovascular risk factors including LGI and ED. RESULTS Patients with CVD (n = 118) showed significantly higher levels of TIMP-1 [β = 0.32 SD (95%CI: 0.12; 0.52)], but not of MMPs, than patients without CVD (n = 375). Higher plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10 and TIMP-1 were associated with higher levels of albuminuria (p-trends were 0.028, 0.004, 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). Severity of retinopathy was significantly associated with higher levels of MMP-2 (p-trend = 0.017). These associations remained significant after further adjustment for markers of LGI and ED. CONCLUSIONS These data support the hypothesis that impaired regulation of matrix remodeling by actions of MMP-2, -3 and-10 and TIMP-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes.Stijn A Peeters, Lian Engelen, Jacqueline Buijs, Nish Chaturvedi, John H Fuller, Casper G Schalkwijk, Coen D Stehouwer, and EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Grou

    Relationship between plasma sialic acid and fibrinogen concentration and incident micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes. The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (PCS)

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    Aims/hypothesis: Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of vascular complications. This increased risk could be explained by sialic acid and/or fibrinogen. It is also not clear what explains the abolition of sex-related differences affecting risk of CHD in the presence of type 1 diabetes. Therefore, we examined whether fibrinogen and sialic acid are related to incident micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: A subset (n=2329) of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study was analysed. Sialic acid and fibrinogen concentrations were measured at baseline. The main outcomes after 7 years were development of albuminuria, retinopathy, neuropathy and CHD. Results: Univariable and multivariable models using Cox proportional survival analyses showed that an SD unit increase in sialic acid and fibrinogen levels was significantly associated with CHD in men only. Adjusted standardised hazard ratios (sHRs) were 1.50 (95% CI 1.05-2.15) and 1.40 (95% CI 1.06-1.86) for sialic acid and fibrinogen, respectively. Initial associations between (1) sialic acid and incident retinopathy [standardised odds ratio (sOR) men 1.68, 95% CI 1.10-2.57], (2) fibrinogen and retinopathy (sOR women 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.78) and (3) sialic acid and neuropathy (sOR men 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.77) were shown, but became non-significant in multivariable models. Conclusions/interpretation: Sialic acid and fibrinogen are strong predictors of CHD in men with type 1 diabetes, beyond the effect of established risk factors. The associations found with microvascular complications were not independent of other risk factors

    Relationship between plasma sialic acid and fibrinogen concentration and incident micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes. The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (PCS)

    No full text
    Aims/hypothesis: Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of vascular complications. This increased risk could be explained by sialic acid and/or fibrinogen. It is also not clear what explains the abolition of sex-related differences affecting risk of CHD in the presence of type 1 diabetes. Therefore, we examined whether fibrinogen and sialic acid are related to incident micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: A subset (n=2329) of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study was analysed. Sialic acid and fibrinogen concentrations were measured at baseline. The main outcomes after 7 years were development of albuminuria, retinopathy, neuropathy and CHD. Results: Univariable and multivariable models using Cox proportional survival analyses showed that an SD unit increase in sialic acid and fibrinogen levels was significantly associated with CHD in men only. Adjusted standardised hazard ratios (sHRs) were 1.50 (95% CI 1.05-2.15) and 1.40 (95% CI 1.06-1.86) for sialic acid and fibrinogen, respectively. Initial associations between (1) sialic acid and incident retinopathy [standardised odds ratio (sOR) men 1.68, 95% CI 1.10-2.57], (2) fibrinogen and retinopathy (sOR women 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.78) and (3) sialic acid and neuropathy (sOR men 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.77) were shown, but became non-significant in multivariable models. Conclusions/interpretation: Sialic acid and fibrinogen are strong predictors of CHD in men with type 1 diabetes, beyond the effect of established risk factors. The associations found with microvascular complications were not independent of other risk factors

    Glycemic control and all-cause mortality risk in type 1 diabetes patients: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

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    Context: Glycemic targets and the benefit of intensive glucose control are currently under debate because intensive glycemic control has been suggested to have negative effects on mortality risk in type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: We examined the association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Design, Setting, and Patients: A clinic-based prospective cohort study was performed in 2764 European patients with type 1 diabetes aged 15–60 years enrolled in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Outcome Measure: Possible nonlinearity of the association between HbA1c and all-cause mortality was examined using multivariable restricted cubic spline regression using three (at HbA1c 5.6%, 8.1%, and 11.8%) and five knots (additionally at HbA1c 7.1% and 9.5%). Mortality data were collected approximately 7 years after baseline examination. Results: HbA1c was related to all-cause mortality in a nonlinear manner after adjustment for age and sex. All-cause mortality risk was increased at both low (5.6%) and high (11.8%) HbA1c compared with the reference (median HbA1c: 8.1%) following a U-shaped association [P overall effect = .008 and .04, P nonlinearity = .03 and .11 (three and five knots, respectively)]. Conclusions: Results from our study in type 1 diabetes patients suggest that target HbA1c below a certain threshold may not be appropriate in this population. We recognize that these low HbA1c levels may be related to anemia, renal insufficiency, infection, or other factors not available in our database. If our data are confirmed, the potential mechanisms underlying this increased mortality risk among those with low HbA1c will need further study

    Glycemic control and all-cause mortality risk in type 1 diabetes patients: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

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    CONTEXT: Glycemic targets and the benefit of intensive glucose control are currently under debate because intensive glycemic control has been suggested to have negative effects on mortality risk in type 2 diabetes patients.OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A clinic-based prospective cohort study was performed in 2764 European patients with type 1 diabetes aged 15-60 years enrolled in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study.OUTCOME MEASURE: Possible nonlinearity of the association between HbA1c and all-cause mortality was examined using multivariable restricted cubic spline regression using three (at HbA1c 5.6%, 8.1%, and 11.8%) and five knots (additionally at HbA1c 7.1% and 9.5%). Mortality data were collected approximately 7 years after baseline examination.RESULTS: HbA1c was related to all-cause mortality in a nonlinear manner after adjustment for age and sex. All-cause mortality risk was increased at both low (5.6%) and high (11.8%) HbA1c compared with the reference (median HbA1c: 8.1%) following a U-shaped association [P overall effect = .008 and .04, P nonlinearity = .03 and .11 (three and five knots, respectively)].CONCLUSIONS: Results from our study in type 1 diabetes patients suggest that target HbA1c below a certain threshold may not be appropriate in this population. We recognize that these low HbA1c levels may be related to anemia, renal insufficiency, infection, or other factors not available in our database. If our data are confirmed, the potential mechanisms underlying this increased mortality risk among those with low HbA1c will need further study.</p

    Do European people with type 1 diabetes consume a high atherogenic diet? 7-year follow-up of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study.

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    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with type 1 diabetes have a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and it has been reported that they consume a high atherogenic diet. We examined how nutrient intake and adherence to current European nutritional recommendations evolved in a large cohort of European individuals with type 1 diabetes over a period of 7 years. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analysed data from the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study, a European multicentre prospective cohort study. Standardized 3-day dietary records were employed in individuals with type 1 diabetes. One thousand one hundred and two patients (553 men, 549 women, baseline age 33 ± 10 years, duration 15 ± 9 years) had complete nutritional data available at baseline and after 7 years. We calculated mean differences in reported nutrients over time and adjusted these for age, gender, HbA1c and BMI with ANOVA models. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, there were minor changes in nutrients. Reported protein (-0.35% energy (en), fat (-1.07% en), saturated fat (-0.25% en) and cholesterol (-7.42 mg/1000 kcal) intakes were lower, whereas carbohydrate (+1.23% en) and fibre (+0.46 g/1000 kcal) intakes were higher at the 7-year follow-up. European recommendations for adequate nutrient intakes were followed in individuals with type 1 diabetes for protein (76% at baseline and 78% at follow-up), moderately for fat (34, 40%), carbohydrate (34, 41%) and cholesterol (39, 47%), but poorly for fibre (1.4, 2.4%) and saturated fat (11, 13%). CONCLUSION: European individuals with type 1 diabetes consume a high atherogenic diet as few patients met recommendations for dietary fibre and saturated fat. This study showed minor changes in dietary nutrients and energy intakes over a period of 7 years. Nutrition education needs particular focus on strategies to increase dietary fibre and reduce saturated fat to exploit their potential benefit
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