1,626 research outputs found

    Letters and records of the dissenting congregations: David Crosley, Cripplegate and Baptist Church life

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    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.comInternational audienceThis chapter examines the status and function of letters in manuscript records of dissenting Churches of the post-Toleration years, concentrating on the correspondence of the Baptist Church of Cripplegate. The letters are placed in the context of controversies about Church government and discipline and the rhetoric used during the scandal caused by the excommunication of its Northern minister David Crosley for drinking, lying and adultery is assessed. In doing so, the chapter pays particular attention to the epistolary exchanges between metropolitan and provincial congregations and to what they reveal about conceptions of the Baptist ministry

    Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear

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    The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct regions can be identified within these two organs. The basilar papilla functions as a single auditory filter. The low-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is an electrically tuned, tonotopically organized auditory end organ. The high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is mechanically tuned and tonotopically organized, and it emits spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. This high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla shows a remarkable, functional resemblance to the mammalian cochlea

    Necrosis correlates with high vascular density and focal macrophage infiltration in invasive carcinoma of the breast

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    Necrosis is a common feature of invasive carcinoma of the breast and is caused by chronic ischaemia leading to infarction. Although necrosis was previously assumed to be due to a generally poor blood supply in the tumour, in this study we show that it is present in tumours with focal areas of high vascular density situated away from the actual sites of necrosis. This may account, in part, for the previous observation that necrosis is linked to poor prognosis in this disease. Highly angiogenic tumours often display blood vessel shunting from one tumour area to another, which further exacerbates ischaemia and the formation of tumour necrosis. We have recently demonstrated that high focal microphage infiltration into breast tumours is significantly associated with increased tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis and that the macrophages accumulate in poorly vascularized, hypoxic areas within breast tumours. In order to investigate the interactions of macrophages with chronic ischaemia (as reflected by the presence of necrosis) and angiogenesis in breast tumours, we quantified the levels of these three biological parameters in a series of 109 consecutive invasive breast carcinomas. We found that the degree of tumour necrosis was correlated with both microphage infiltration (Mann–Whitney U, P-value = 0.0009; chi-square, P-value = 0.01) and angiogenesis (Mann–Whitney U P-value = 0.0008, chi square P-value = 0.03). It was also observed that necrosis was a feature of tumours possessing an aggressive phenotype, i.e. high tumour grade (chi-square, P-value < 0.001), larger size (Mann–Whitney U, P-value = 0.003) and low oestrogen receptor status (Mann–Whitney U, P-value = 0.008; chi-square, P-value < 0.008). We suggest, therefore, that aggressive tumours rapidly outgrow their vascular supply in certain areas, leading to areas of prolonged hypoxia within the tumour and, subsequently, to necrosis. This, in turn, may attract macrophages into the tumour, which then contribute to the angiogenic process, giving rise to an association between high levels of angiogenesis and extensive necrosis. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaig

    The importance of transdiagnostic symptom level assessment to understanding prognosis for depressed adults: analysis of data from six randomized control trials

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    Background: Depression is commonly perceived as a single underlying disease with a number of potential treatment options. However, patients with major depression differ dramatically in their symptom presentation and comorbidities, e.g. with anxiety disorders. There are also large variations in treatment outcomes and associations of some anxiety comorbidities with poorer prognoses, but limited understanding as to why, and little information to inform the clinical management of depression. There is a need to improve our understanding of depression, incorporating anxiety co-morbidity, and consider the association of a wide range of symptoms with treatment outcomes. / Method: Individual patient data from six RCTs of depressed patients (total n=2858) were used to estimate the differential impact symptoms have on outcomes at three post intervention timepoints using individual items and sum scores. Symptom networks (Graphical Gaussian Model) were estimated to explore the functional relations among symptoms of depression and anxiety and compare networks for treatment remitters and those with persistent symptoms to identify potential prognostic indicators. / Results: Item-level prediction performed similarly to sum scores when predicting outcomes at 3 to 4 months and 6 to 8 months, but outperformed sum scores for 9 to 12 months. Pessimism emerged as the most important predictive symptom (relative to all other symptoms), across these time points. In the network structure at study entry, symptoms clustered into physical symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Sadness, pessimism, and indecision acted as bridges between communities, with sadness and failure/worthlessness being the most central (i.e. interconnected) symptoms. Connectivity of networks at study entry did not differ for future remitters vs. those with persistent symptoms. / Conclusion: The relative importance of specific symptoms in association with outcomes and the interactions within the network highlight the value of transdiagnostic assessment and formulation of symptoms to both treatment and prognosis. We discuss the potential for complementary statistical approaches to improve our understanding of psychopathology

    Evaluation of SLC11A1 as an inflammatory bowel disease candidate gene

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    BACKGROUND: Significant evidence suggests that a promoter polymorphism withinthe gene SLC11A1 is involved in susceptibility to both autoimmune and infectious disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLC11A1 has a role in the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by characterizing a promoter polymorphism within the gene and two short tandem repeat (STR) markers in genetic proximity to SLC11A1. METHODS: The studied population consisted of 484 Caucasians with IBD, 144 population controls, and 348 non-IBD-affected first-degree relatives of IBD patients. IBD subjects were re-categorized at the sub-disease phenotypic level to characterize possible SLC11A1 genotype-phenotype correlations. Polymorphic markers were amplified from germline DNA and typed using gel electrophoresis. Genotype-phenotype correlations were defined using case-control, haplotype, and family-based association studies. RESULTS: This study did not provide compelling evidence for SLC11A1 disease association; most significantly, there was no apparent evidence of SLC11A1 promoter allele association in the studied Crohn's disease population. CONCLUSION: Our results therefore refute previous studies that have shown SLC11A1 promoter polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to this form of IBD

    Measuring the effect of enhanced cleaning in a UK hospital : a prospective cross-over study

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    Increasing hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. There is evidence that hygienic cleaning has a role in the control of hospital-acquired infections. This study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of one additional cleaner by using microbiological standards based on aerobic colony counts and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus including meticillin-resistant S. aureus. We introduced an additional cleaner into two matched wards from Monday to Friday, with each ward receiving enhanced cleaning for six months in a cross-over design. Ten hand-touch sites on both wards were screened weekly using standardised methods and patients were monitored for meticillin-resistant S. aureus infection throughout the year-long study. Patient and environmental meticillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were characterised using molecular methods in order to investigate temporal and clonal relationships. Enhanced cleaning was associated with a 32.5% reduction in levels of microbial contamination at handtouch sites when wards received enhanced cleaning (P < 0.0001: 95% CI 20.2%, 42.9%). Near-patient sites (lockers, overbed tables and beds) were more frequently contaminated with meticillin-resistant S. aureus/S. aureus than sites further from the patient (P = 0.065). Genotyping identified indistinguishable strains from both handtouch sites and patients. There was a 26.6% reduction in new meticillin-resistant S. aureus infections on the wards receiving extra cleaning, despite higher meticillin-resistant S. aureus patient-days and bed occupancy rates during enhanced cleaning periods (P = 0.032: 95% CI 7.7%, 92.3%). Adjusting for meticillin-resistant S. aureus patient-days and based upon nine new meticillin-resistant S. aureus infections seen during routine cleaning, we expected 13 new infections during enhanced cleaning periods rather than the four that actually occurred. Clusters of new meticillin-resistant S. aureus infections were identified 2 to 4 weeks after the cleaner left both wards. Enhanced cleaning saved the hospital £30,000 to £70,000.Introducing one extra cleaner produced a measurable effect on the clinical environment, with apparent benefit to patients regarding meticillin-resistant S. aureus infection. Molecular epidemiological methods supported the possibility that patients acquired meticillin-resistant S. aureus from environmental sources. These findings suggest that additional research is warranted to further clarify the environmental, clinical and economic impact of enhanced hygienic cleaning as a component in the control of hospital-acquired infection

    Role of macrophage sialoadhesin in host defense against the sialylated pathogen group B <em>Streptococcus</em>

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    ABSTRACT: Several bacterial pathogens decorate their surfaces with sialic acid (Sia) residues within cell wall components or capsular exopolysaccharides. Sialic acid expression can promote bacterial virulence by blocking complement activation or by engagement of inhibitory sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) on host leukocytes. Expressed at high levels on splenic and lymph node macrophages, sialoadhesin (Sn) is a unique Siglec with an elongated structure that lacks intracellular signaling motifs. Sialoadhesin allows macrophage to engage certain sialylated pathogens and stimulate inflammatory responses, but the in vivo significance of sialoadhesin in infection has not been shown. We demonstrate that macrophages phagocytose the sialylated pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS) and increase bactericidal activity via sialoadhesin-sialic-acid-mediated recognition. Sialoadhesin expression on marginal zone metallophillic macrophages in the spleen trapped circulating GBS and restricted the spread of the GBS to distant organs, reducing mortality. Specific IgM antibody responses to GBS challenge were also impaired in sialoadhesin-deficient mice. Thus, sialoadhesin represents a key bridge to orchestrate innate and adaptive immune defenses against invasive sialylated bacterial pathogens. KEY MESSAGE: Sialoadhesin is critical for macrophages to phagocytose and clear GBS. Increased GBS organ dissemination in the sialoadhesin-deficient mice. Reduced anti-GBS IgM production in the sialoadhesin-deficient mice. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00109-014-1157-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

    Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE) or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S) group (n = 5 each). In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4°C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37°C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups) or immediately after sacrifice (Control), the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation): CE: 160 mm<sup>3 </sup>(0.61) vs. CE+S: 4 mm<sup>3 </sup>(0.75); p < 0.05) and the development of atelectases (CE: 342 mm<sup>3 </sup>(0.90) vs. CE+S: 0 mm<sup>3</sup>; p < 0.05) but led to a higher degree of peribronchovascular edema (CE: 89 mm<sup>3 </sup>(0.39) vs. CE+S: 268 mm<sup>3 </sup>(0.43); p < 0.05). Alveolar type II cells were similarly swollen in CE (423 μm<sup>3</sup>(0.10)) and CE+S (481 μm<sup>3</sup>(0.10)) compared with controls (323 μm<sup>3</sup>(0.07); p < 0.05 vs. CE and CE+S). The number of lamellar bodies was increased and the mean lamellar body volume was decreased in both CE groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of peribronchovascular edema. Morphological changes of alveolar type II cells due to I/R are not affected by surfactant treatment. The beneficial effects of exogenous surfactant therapy are related to the intraalveolar activity of the exogenous surfactant.</p