29 research outputs found

    Comparative (Meta)genomic Analysis and Ecological Profiling of Human Gut-Specific Bacteriophage φB124-14

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    Bacteriophage associated with the human gut microbiome are likely to have an important impact on community structure and function, and provide a wealth of biotechnological opportunities. Despite this, knowledge of the ecology and composition of bacteriophage in the gut bacterial community remains poor, with few well characterized gut-associated phage genomes currently available. Here we describe the identification and in-depth (meta)genomic, proteomic, and ecological analysis of a human gut-specific bacteriophage (designated φB124-14). In doing so we illuminate a fraction of the biological dark matter extant in this ecosystem and its surrounding eco-genomic landscape, identifying a novel and uncharted bacteriophage gene-space in this community. φB124-14 infects only a subset of closely related gut-associated Bacteroides fragilis strains, and the circular genome encodes functions previously found to be rare in viral genomes and human gut viral metagenome sequences, including those which potentially confer advantages upon phage and/or host bacteria. Comparative genomic analyses revealed φB124-14 is most closely related to φB40-8, the only other publically available Bacteroides sp. phage genome, whilst comparative metagenomic analysis of both phage failed to identify any homologous sequences in 136 non-human gut metagenomic datasets searched, supporting the human gut-specific nature of this phage. Moreover, a potential geographic variation in the carriage of these and related phage was revealed by analysis of their distribution and prevalence within 151 human gut microbiomes and viromes from Europe, America and Japan. Finally, ecological profiling of φB124-14 and φB40-8, using both gene-centric alignment-driven phylogenetic analyses, as well as alignment-free gene-independent approaches was undertaken. This not only verified the human gut-specific nature of both phage, but also indicated that these phage populate a distinct and unexplored ecological landscape within the human gut microbiome

    Conservation of Gene Order and Content in the Circular Chromosomes of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and Other Rhizobiales

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    ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ an insect-vectored, obligate intracellular bacterium associated with citrus-greening disease, also called “HLB," is a member of the Rhizobiales along with nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and facultative intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Comparative analyses of their circular chromosomes identified 514 orthologous genes shared among all five species. Shared among all five species are 50 identical blocks of microsyntenous orthologous genes (MOGs), containing a total of 283 genes. While retaining highly conserved genomic blocks of microsynteny, divergent evolution, horizontal gene transfer and niche specialization have disrupted macrosynteny among the five circular chromosomes compared. Highly conserved microsyntenous gene clusters help define the Rhizobiales, an order previously defined by 16S RNA gene similarity and herein represented by the three families: Bartonellaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhizobiaceae. Genes without orthologs in the other four species help define individual species. The circular chromosomes of each of the five Rhizobiales species examined had genes lacking orthologs in the other four species. For example, 63 proteins are encoded by genes of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ not shared with other members of the Rhizobiales. Of these 63 proteins, 17 have predicted functions related to DNA replication or RNA transcription, and some of these may have roles related to low genomic GC content. An additional 17 proteins have predicted functions relevant to cellular processes, particularly modifications of the cell surface. Seventeen unshared proteins have specific metabolic functions including a pathway to synthesize cholesterol encoded by a seven-gene operon. The remaining 12 proteins encoded by ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genes not shared with other Rhizobiales are of bacteriophage origin. ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ shares 11 genes with only Sinorhizobium meliloti and 12 genes are shared with only Bartonella henselae

    The Population Genetics of dN/dS

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    Evolutionary pressures on proteins are often quantified by the ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites. The dN/dS ratio was originally developed for application to distantly diverged sequences, the differences among which represent substitutions that have fixed along independent lineages. Nevertheless, the dN/dS measure is often applied to sequences sampled from a single population, the differences among which represent segregating polymorphisms. Here, we study the expected dN/dS ratio for samples drawn from a single population under selection, and we find that in this context, dN/dS is relatively insensitive to the selection coefficient. Moreover, the hallmark signature of positive selection over divergent lineages, dN/dS>1, is violated within a population. For population samples, the relationship between selection and dN/dS does not follow a monotonic function, and so it may be impossible to infer selection pressures from dN/dS. These results have significant implications for the interpretation of dN/dS measurements among population-genetic samples

    Comparative Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Libraries in the Seagrass Zostera marina Subjected to Temperature Stress

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    Global warming is associated with increasing stress and mortality on temperate seagrass beds, in particular during periods of high sea surface temperatures during summer months, adding to existing anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication and habitat destruction. We compare several expressed sequence tag (EST) in the ecologically important seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) to elucidate the molecular genetic basis of adaptation to environmental extremes. We compared the tentative unigene (TUG) frequencies of libraries derived from leaf and meristematic tissue from a control situation with two experimentally imposed temperature stress conditions and found that TUG composition is markedly different among these conditions (all P < 0.0001). Under heat stress, we find that 63 TUGs are differentially expressed (d.e.) at 25°C compared with lower, no-stress condition temperatures (4°C and 17°C). Approximately one-third of d.e. eelgrass genes were characteristic for the stress response of the terrestrial plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. The changes in gene expression suggest complex photosynthetic adjustments among light-harvesting complexes, reaction center subunits of photosystem I and II, and components of the dark reaction. Heat shock encoding proteins and reactive oxygen scavengers also were identified, but their overall frequency was too low to perform statistical tests. In all conditions, the most abundant transcript (3–15%) was a putative metallothionein gene with unknown function. We also find evidence that heat stress may translate to enhanced infection by protists. A total of 210 TUGs contain one or more microsatellites as potential candidates for gene-linked genetic markers. Data are publicly available in a user-friendly database at http://www.uni-muenster.de/Evolution/ebb/Services/zostera

    Faktor Risiko Kejadian Diare Pada Anak Balita di Wilayah Puskesmas Induk kelurahan Nusukan Kecamatan Banjarsari Surakarta 2008

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    Diare adalah suatu penyakit dengan tanda-tanda adanya perubahan bentuk dan konsentrasi tinja yang melembek sampai mencair dan bertambahnya frekuensi berak lebih dari 3 kali sehari. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor-faktor risiko kejadian diare seperti hubungan sumber sarana air bersih, penggunaan jamban keluarga, pengetahuan tentang diare, praktik pencegahan penyakit diare, serta kandungan bakteriologis pada air minum dengan kejadian diare. Populasi berjumlah 112 dengan sampel sebanyak 52 sampel. Metode penelitain adalah observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Variabel bebas adalah jenis sarana air bersih, penggunaan jamban keluarga, pengetahuan tentang diare, praktik pencegahan diare, dan kandungan bakteriologis pada air minum dan variabel terikat adalah kejadian diare pada anak balita. Untuk mengetahui hubungan variabel dilakukan uji statistic chi square (alfa)=0,05, diolah menggunakan SPSS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dari 52 responden yang mengalami diare adalah 20 balita. Hasil uji statistic tidak ada hubungan antara penggunaan jamban keluarga dengan kejadian diare pada anak balita dengan probabilitas=0,312, tidak ada hubungan antara pengetahuan ibu dengan kejadian diare pada anak balita dengan probabilitas=0,439, tidak ada hubungan antara praktik pencegahan diare dengan kejadian diare pada anak balita dengan probabilitas=0,592, ada hubungan antara kandungan bakteriologis pada air minum dengan kejadian diare pada anak balita dengan probabilitas=0,007. Oleh karena itu untuk ibu-ibu yang mempunyai balita agar selalu memperhatikan dan menerapkan perilaku hidup sehat (PHBS) dengan selalu mencuci tangan secara benar sebelum menyusui, menyuapi, memegang makanan, serta sesudah buang air besar serta kepada seluruh masyarakat Keluarahan Nusukan Kecamatan Banjarsari untuk selalu memperhatikan kesehatan lingkungan dan disarankan petugas kesehatan juga aktif mengadakan penyuluhan kesehatan. Kata Kunci: Pengetahuan, Praktik, Kualitas Bakteriologis air minum, Diar