117 research outputs found

    A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries. The autonomy-supportive message decreased feelings of defying social distancing recommendations relative to the controlling message, and the controlling message increased controlled motivation, a less effective form of motivation, relative to no message. Message type did not impact intentions to socially distance, but people’s existing motivations were related to intentions. Findings were generalizable across a geographically diverse sample and may inform public health communication strategies in this and future global health emergencies. Abstract Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e., a controlling message) compared with no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message lowered feelings of defiance compared with the controlling message, but the controlling message did not differ from receiving no message at all. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing. Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intention to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges

    The immune response to infection in the bladder

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    International audienceThe bladder is continuously protected by passive defences such as a mucus layer, antimicrobial peptides and secretory immunoglobulins; however, these defences are occasionally overcome by invading bacteria that can induce a strong host inflammatory response in the bladder. The urothelium and resident immune cells produce additional defence molecules, cytokines and chemokines, which recruit inflammatory cells to the infected tissue. Resident and recruited immune cells act together to eradicate bacteria from the bladder and to develop lasting immune memory against infection. However, urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly recurrent, suggesting that the induction of a memory response in the bladder is inadequate to prevent reinfection. Additionally, infection seems to induce long-lasting changes in the urothelium, which can render the tissue more susceptible to future infection. The innate immune response is well-studied in the field of UTI, but considerably less is known about how adaptive immunity develops and how repair mechanisms restore bladder homeostasis following infection. Furthermore, data demonstrate that sex-based differences in immunity affect resolution and infection can lead to tissue remodelling in the bladder following resolution of UTI. To combat the rise in antimicrobial resistance, innovative therapeutic approaches to bladder infection are currently in development. Improving our understanding of how the bladder responds to infection will support the development of improved treatments for UTI, particularly for those at risk of recurrent infection

    Oxidative Stability of Edible Plant Oils

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    Edible plant oils play a vital role in daily diets of people worldwide. Stability against oxidation is the major factor limiting the application of most edible plant oils for cooking and processing. Most native plant oils vary greatly in their stability to oxidation depending on their composition. Oxidative stability of edible plant oils has been extensively studied to find out the ways of improving their stability against oxidation to widen their application. Synthetic antioxidants are effective to improve the oxidative stability of these oils, however, recently, following the evidences on possible toxicities of synthetic antioxidants, the use of natural plant sources as antioxidant is gaining interest. In addition, modification of composition of the oils through genetic modification is another successful means to improve the oxidative stability of these oils. This chapter focuses on the mechanism and factors of oxidation and ways of improving oxidative stability of oils.</p

    Search for new phenomena in monophoton final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=8 TeV

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    Search for narrow high-mass resonances in proton-proton collisions at root s=8 TeV decaying to a Z and a Higgs boson