1,554 research outputs found

    Constraints on directionality effect of nuclear recoils in a liquid argon time projection chamber

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    Directionality of nuclear recoils in a liquid argon time projection chamber

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    International audienceThe direct search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) is performed by detecting nuclear recoils (NR) produced in a target material from the WIMP elastic scattering. A promising experimental strategy for direct dark matter search employs argon dual-phase time projection chambers (TPC). One of the advantages of the TPC is the capability to detect both the scintillation and charge signals produced by NRs. Furthermore, the existence of a drift electric field in the TPC breaks the rotational symmetry: the angle between the drift field and the momentum of the recoiling nucleus can potentially affect the charge recombination probability in liquid argon and then the relative balance between the two signal channels. This fact could make the detector sensitive to the directionality of the WIMP-induced signal, enabling unmistakable annual and daily modulation signatures for future searches aiming for discovery. The Recoil Directionality (ReD) experiment was designed to probe for such directional sensitivity. The TPC of ReD was irradiated with neutrons at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, and data were taken with 72 keV NRs of known recoil directions. The direction-dependent liquid argon charge recombination model by Cataudella et al. was adopted and a likelihood statistical analysis was performed, which gave no indications of significant dependence of the detector response to the recoil direction. The aspect ratio R of the initial ionization cloud is estimated to be 1.037 +/- 0.027 and the upper limit is R < 1.072 with 90% confidence leve

    Study on cosmogenic activation above ground for the DarkSide-20k project

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    International audienceThe activation of materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays may become an important background source for experiments investigating rare event phenomena. DarkSide-20k is a direct detection experiment for galactic dark matter particles, using a two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber filled with 49.7 tonnes (active mass) of Underground Argon (UAr) depleted in 39Ar. Here, the cosmogenic activity of relevant long-lived radioisotopes induced in the argon and other massive components of the set-up has been estimated; production of 120 t of radiopure UAr is foreseen. The expected exposure above ground and production rates, either measured or calculated, have been considered. From the simulated counting rates in the detector due to cosmogenic isotopes, it is concluded that activation in copper and stainless steel is not problematic. Activation of titanium, considered in early designs but not used in the final design, is discussed. The activity of 39Ar induced during extraction, purification and transport on surface, in baseline conditions, is evaluated to be 2.8% of the activity measured in UAr from the same source, and thus considered acceptable. Other products in the UAr such as 37Ar and 3H are shown to not be relevant due to short half-life and assumed purification methods

    Study of cosmogenic activation above ground for the DarkSide-20k experiment

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    The activation of materials due to exposure to cosmic rays may become an important background source for experiments investigating rare event phenomena. DarkSide-20k, currently under construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, is a direct detection experiment for galactic dark matter particles, using a two-phase liquid-argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) filled with 49.7 tonnes (active mass) of Underground Argon (UAr) depleted in 39Ar. Despite the outstanding capability of discriminating 纬/尾 background in argon TPCs, this background must be considered because of induced dead time or accidental coincidences mimicking dark-matter signals and it is relevant for low-threshold electron-counting measurements. Here, the cosmogenic activity of relevant long-lived radioisotopes induced in the experiment has been estimated to set requirements and procedures during preparation of the experiment and to check that it is not dominant over primordial radioactivity; particular attention has been paid to the activation of the 120 t of UAr used in DarkSide-20k. Expected exposures above ground and production rates, either measured or calculated, have been considered in detail. From the simulated counting rates in the detector due to cosmogenic isotopes, it is concluded that activation in copper and stainless steel is not problematic. The activity of 39Ar induced during extraction, purification and transport on surface is evaluated to be 2.8% of the activity measured in UAr by DarkSide-50 experiment, which used the same underground source, and thus considered acceptable. Other isotopes in the UAr such as 37Ar and 3H are shown not to be relevant due to short half-life and assumed purification methods

    Measurements of the Cherenkov effect in direct detection of charged particles with SiPMs

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    In this paper, different Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) sensors have been tested with charged particles to characterize the Cherenkov light produced in the sensor protection layer. A careful position scan of the SiPM response has been performed with different prototypes, confirming the large number of firing cells and proving almost full efficiency, with the SiPM filling factor essentially negligible. This study also allowed us to study the time resolution of such devices as a function of the number of firing cells, reaching values below 20 ps. These measurements provide significant insight into the capabilities of SiPM sensors in direct detection of charged particles and their potential for several applications

    Studies on new Eco-gas mixtures for Extreme Energy Events Project

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    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) experiment, a joint project of the Centro Fermi and INFN Italian national research institutes, has a dual purpose: a scientific research program for measurements of the cosmic rays flux at ground level and an intense outreach and educational program with an active contribution of students and teachers in the construction and operation of the detectors in High Schools. The network counts 60 tracking detectors, each made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), operated so far with a gas mixture composed by 98% C2H2F4 and 2% SF6. Given its high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the collaboration, since few years, started a R&amp;D on alternative mixtures environmentally sustainable. Latest results on a C3H2F4 + He eco-friendly mixture are here presented

    Measurement of isotopic separation of argon with the prototype of the cryogenic distillation plant Aria for dark matter searches

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    International audienceThe Aria cryogenic distillation plant, located in Sardinia, Italy, is a key component of the DarkSide-20k experimental program for WIMP dark matter searches at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Aria is designed to purify the argon, extracted from underground wells in Colorado, USA, and used as the DarkSide-20k target material, to detector-grade quality. In this paper, we report the first measurement of argon isotopic separation by distillation with the 26 m tall Aria prototype. We discuss the measurement of the operating parameters of the column and the observation of the simultaneous separation of the three stable argon isotopes: Ar36^{36}, Ar38^{38}, and Ar40^{40}. We also provide a detailed comparison of the experimental results with commercial process simulation software. This measurement of isotopic separation of argon is a significant achievement for the project, building on the success of the initial demonstration of isotopic separation of nitrogen using the same equipment in 2019

    Directionality of nuclear recoils in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    No full text
    International audienceThe direct search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) is performed by detecting nuclear recoils (NR) produced in a target material from the WIMP elastic scattering. A promising experimental strategy for direct dark matter search employs argon dual-phase time projection chambers (TPC). One of the advantages of the TPC is the capability to detect both the scintillation and charge signals produced by NRs. Furthermore, the existence of a drift electric field in the TPC breaks the rotational symmetry: the angle between the drift field and the momentum of the recoiling nucleus can potentially affect the charge recombination probability in liquid argon and then the relative balance between the two signal channels. This fact could make the detector sensitive to the directionality of the WIMP-induced signal, enabling unmistakable annual and daily modulation signatures for future searches aiming for discovery. The Recoil Directionality (ReD) experiment was designed to probe for such directional sensitivity. The TPC of ReD was irradiated with neutrons at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, and data were taken with 72 keV NRs of known recoil directions. The direction-dependent liquid argon charge recombination model by Cataudella et al. was adopted and a likelihood statistical analysis was performed, which gave no indications of significant dependence of the detector response to the recoil direction. The aspect ratio R of the initial ionization cloud is estimated to be 1.037 +/- 0.027 and the upper limit is R < 1.072 with 90% confidence leve

    Measurements of the Cherenkov effect in direct detection of charged particles with SiPMs

    No full text
    In this paper, different Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) sensors have been tested with charged particles to characterize the Cherenkov light produced in the sensor protection layer. A careful position scan of the SiPM response has been performed with different prototypes, confirming the large number of firing cells and proving almost full efficiency, with the SiPM filling factor essentially negligible. This study also allowed us to study the time resolution of such devices as a function of the number of firing cells, reaching values below 20 ps. These measurements provide significant insight into the capabilities of SiPM sensors in direct detection of charged particles and their potential for several applications.In this paper, different Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) sensors have been tested with charged particles to characterize the Cherenkov light produced in the sensor protection layer. A careful position scan of the SiPM response has been performed with different prototypes, confirming the large number of firing cells and proving almost full efficiency, with the SiPM filling factor essentially negligible. This study also allowed us to study the time resolution of such devices as a function of the number of firing cells, reaching values below 20 ps. These measurements provide significant insight into the capabilities of SiPM sensors in direct detection of charged particles and their potential for several applications
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