264 research outputs found

    Functional map of arrestin binding to phosphorylated opsin, with and without agonist

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    Arrestins desensitize G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and act as mediators of signalling. Here we investigated the interactions of arrestin-1 with two functionally distinct forms of the dim-light photoreceptor rhodopsin. Using unbiased scanning mutagenesis we probed the individual contribution of each arrestin residue to the interaction with the phosphorylated apo-receptor (Ops-P) and the agonist-bound form (Meta II-P). Disruption of the polar core or displacement of the C-tail strengthened binding to both receptor forms. In contrast, mutations of phosphate-binding residues (phosphosensors) suggest the phosphorylated receptor C-terminus binds arrestin differently for Meta II-P and Ops-P. Likewise, mutations within the inter-domain interface, variations in the receptor-binding loops and the C-edge of arrestin reveal different binding modes. In summary, our results indicate that arrestin-1 binding to Meta II-P and Ops-P is similarly dependent on arrestin activation, although the complexes formed with these two receptor forms are structurally distinct

    Infection of cattle with Border disease virus by sheep on communal alpine pastures

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    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sheep grazing communal alpine pastures with cattle can transmit Border disease virus (BDV) to cattle. A total of 1170 sheep and 923 cattle were tested for BDV using RT-PCR (sheep) and for pestivirus antibodies using an ELISA (cattle), respectively, before being moved to one of 4 pastures (A, B, C and D). Eight sheep from pasture C were viraemic. 396 of 923 cattle examined before the pasture season were seronegative. The latter were re-examined after the pasture season and 99 were seropositive or indeterminate. Antibody specificity was determined in 25 of these using a serum neutralization test (SNT). BDV infection was confirmed in 10 cattle and was considered likely in 8 others. BVDV infection was confirmed in 4 cattle and considered likely in 3 after pasturing. The study has shown that the transmission of BDV from sheep to cattle is possible on communal alpine pastures

    Comparison of bulk milk antibody and youngstock serology screens for determining herd status for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus

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    BACKGROUND: This paper examines the use of Bulk Milk antibody (BM Ab), Youngstock (YS) serology (Check Tests) and Bulk Milk PCR (BM PCR) for determining the presence or absence of animals persistently infected (PI) with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) within a herd. Data is presented from 26 herds where average herd sizes were 343 and 98 animals for dairy and beef units respectively. Seventeen herds had sufficient data to analyse using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and probability curves enabling calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of BM Ab and YS Check tests for determining the presence of PI animals within herds in this dataset. RESULTS: Using BM Ab to screen a herd for the presence of PI animals, achieved a herd level sensitivity and specificity of 80.00 % (44.39–97.48 %) and 85.71 % (42.13–99.64 %) respectively (95 % confidence intervals quoted). Sensitivity and specificity of YS Check Tests at a cut off of 3/10 Ab positive YS were 81.82 % (48.22–97.72 %) and 66.67 % (22.28–95.67 %) respectively (95 % confidence interval). These results were achieved by comparing the screening tests to whole herd PI searches that took place 1–19 months after the initial screen with a mean interval of 8 months. Removal of this delay by taking BM samples on the day of a whole herd test and simulating a YS Check Test from the herd test data produced improvements in the reliability of the Check Tests. BM Ab sensitivity and specificity remained unchanged. However, the Check Test sensitivity and specificity improved to 90.9 % (58.72–99.77 %) and 100 % (54.07–100 %) respectively (95 % confidence interval) at a cut of off 2.5/10 Ab positive animals. Our limited BM PCR results identified 5/23 dairy farms with a positive BM PCR result; two contained milking PIs, two had non-milking PIs and another had no PIs identified. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying a PI search following an initial herd screen decreased the diagnostic accuracy and relevance of our results. With careful interpretation, longitudinal surveillance using a combination of the techniques discussed can successfully determine farm status and therefore allow changes in BVDV status to be detected early, thus enabling prompt action in the event of a BVDV incursion

    Health care in detention : health systems and needs assessments in prisons, practical guide and toolkit

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    The pestivirus N terminal protease N(pro) redistributes to mitochondria and peroxisomes suggesting new sites for regulation of IRF3 by N(pro.)

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    The N-terminal protease of pestiviruses, N(pro) is a unique viral protein, both because it is a distinct autoprotease that cleaves itself from the following polyprotein chain, and also because it binds and inactivates IRF3, a central regulator of interferon production. An important question remains the role of N(pro) in the inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, apoptotic signals induced by staurosporine, interferon, double stranded RNA, sodium arsenate and hydrogen peroxide were inhibited by expression of wild type N(pro), but not by mutant protein N(pro) C112R, which we show is less efficient at promoting degradation of IRF3, and led to the conclusion that N(pro) inhibits the stress-induced intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through inhibition of IRF3-dependent Bax activation. Both expression of N(pro) and infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) prevented Bax redistribution and mitochondrial fragmentation. Given the role played by signaling platforms during IRF3 activation, we have studied the subcellular distribution of N(pro) and we show that, in common with many other viral proteins, N(pro) targets mitochondria to inhibit apoptosis in response to cell stress. N(pro) itself not only relocated to mitochondria but in addition, both N(pro) and IRF3 associated with peroxisomes, with over 85% of N(pro) puncta co-distributing with PMP70, a marker for peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisomes containing N(pro) and IRF3 associated with ubiquitin. IRF3 was degraded, whereas N(pro) accumulated in response to cell stress. These results implicate mitochondria and peroxisomes as new sites for IRF3 regulation by N(pro), and highlight the role of these organelles in the anti-viral pathway

    Line orientation adaptation: local or global?

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    Prolonged exposure to an oriented line shifts the perceived orientation of a subsequently observed line in the opposite direction, a phenomenon known as the tilt aftereffect (TAE). Here we consider whether the TAE for line stimuli is mediated by a mechanism that integrates the local parts of the line into a single global entity prior to the site of adaptation, or the result of the sum of local TAEs acting separately on the parts of the line. To test between these two alternatives we used the fact the TAE transfers almost completely across luminance contrast polarity [1]. We measured the TAE using adaptor and test lines that (1) either alternated in luminance polarity or were of a single polarity, and (2) either alternated in local orientation or were of a single orientation. We reasoned that if the TAE was agnostic to luminance polarity and was parts-based, we should obtain large TAEs using alternating-polarity adaptors with single-polarity tests. However we found that (i) TAEs using one-alternating-polarity adaptors with all-white tests were relatively small, increased slightly for two-alternating-polarity adaptors, and were largest with all-white or all-black adaptors. (ii) however TAEs were relatively large when the test was one-alternating polarity, irrespective of the adaptor type. (iii) The results with orientation closely mirrored those obtained with polarity with the difference that the TAE transfer across orthogonal orientations was weak. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the TAE for lines is mediated by a global shape mechanism that integrates the parts of lines into whole prior to the site of orientation adaptation. The asymmetry in the magnitude of TAE depending on whether the alternating-polarity lines was the adaptor or test can be explained by an imbalance in the population of neurons sensitive to 1st-and 2nd-order lines, with the 2nd-order lines being encoded by a subset of the mechanisms sensitive to 1st-order lines

    Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses-infected monocytes: identification of cytopathic and non-cytopathic biotype differences

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infection is widespread in cattle worldwide, causing important economic losses. Pathogenesis of the disease caused by BVDV is complex, as each BVDV strain has two biotypes: non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). BVDV can cause a persistent latent infection and immune suppression if animals are infected with an ncp biotype during early gestation, followed by a subsequent infection of the cp biotype. The molecular mechanisms that underscore the complex disease etiology leading to immune suppression in cattle caused by BVDV are not well understood.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Using proteomics, we evaluated the effect of cp and ncp BVDV infection of bovine monocytes to determine their role in viral immune suppression and uncontrolled inflammation. Proteins were isolated by differential detergent fractionation and identified by 2D-LC ESI MS/MS. We identified 137 and 228 significantly altered bovine proteins due to ncp and cp BVDV infection, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins using the Gene Ontology (GO) showed multiple under- and over- represented GO functions in molecular function, biological process and cellular component between the two BVDV biotypes. Analysis of the top immunological pathways affected by BVDV infection revealed that pathways representing macropinocytosis signalling, virus entry via endocytic pathway, integrin signalling and primary immunodeficiency signalling were identified only in ncp BVDV-infected monocytes. In contrast, pathways like actin cytoskeleton signalling, RhoA signalling, clathrin-mediated endocytosis signalling and interferon signalling were identified only in cp BDVD-infected cells. Of the six common pathways involved in cp and ncp BVDV infection, acute phase response signalling was the most significant for both BVDV biotypes. Although, most shared altered host proteins between both BVDV biotypes showed the same type of change, integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2B) and integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) were down- regulated by ncp BVDV and up- regulated by cp BVDV infection.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study shows that, as we expected, there are significant functional differences in the host proteins that respond to cp or ncp BVDV infection. The combined use of GO and systems biology network modelling facilitated a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions.</p

    Ethanol-Mediated Regulation of Cytochrome P450 2A6 Expression in Monocytes: Role of Oxidative Stress-Mediated PKC/MEK/Nrf2 Pathway

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    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is known to metabolize nicotine, the major constituent of tobacco, leading to the production of toxic metabolites and induction of oxidative stress that result in liver damage and lung cancer. Recently, we have shown that CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol and metabolizes nicotine into cotinine and other metabolites leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U937 monocytes. However, the mechanism by which CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol is unknown. In this study, we have examined the role of the PKC/Nrf2 pathway (protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 to the nucleus) in ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction. Our results showed that 100 mM ethanol significantly induced CYP2A6 mRNA and protein (∼150%) and increased ROS formation, and induction of gene expression and ROS were both completely blocked by treatment with either a CYP2E1 inhibitor (diallyl sulfide) or an antioxidant (vitamin C). The results suggest the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CYP2A6 expression. Subsequently, we investigated the role of Nrf2 pathway in oxidative stress-mediated regulation of CYP2A6 expression in U937 monocytes. Our results showed that butylated hydroxyanisole, a stabilizer of nuclear Nrf2, increased CYP2A6 levels >200%. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of PKC, completely abolished ethanol-induced CYP2A6 expression. Furthermore, our results showed that a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) (U0126) completely abolished ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction and Nrf2 translocation. Overall, these results suggest that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress produced as a result of ethanol metabolism translocates Nrf2 into the nucleus through PKC/MEK pathway, resulting in the induction of CYP2A6 in monocytes. An increased level of CYP2A6 in monocytes is expected to further increase oxidative stress in smokers through CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Thus, this study has clinical relevance because of the high incidence of alcohol use among smokers, especially in HIV-infected individuals

    Prions in Milk from Ewes Incubating Natural Scrapie

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    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrPSc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 µg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species
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