12,886 research outputs found

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background: Approximately 450‚ÄČ000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2¬∑1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13¬∑0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings: Of 63‚ÄČ093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11‚ÄČ848 (18¬∑8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50¬∑2%) of 11‚ÄČ476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49¬∑8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3¬∑1%) of 11‚ÄČ848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9¬∑6 years (IQR 5¬∑8-13¬∑2). 10‚ÄČ099 (89¬∑9%) of 11‚ÄČ235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10¬∑1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5¬∑2%) of 11‚ÄČ848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92¬∑4%] of 10‚ÄČ202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48¬∑0%] of 415). 3414 (31¬∑6%) of 10‚ÄČ804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72¬∑4%) of 10‚ÄČ428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5¬∑00 mmol/L (IQR 4¬∑05-6¬∑08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50-75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation: Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life

    Efficacy of different inoculum forms of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 2IIIB for resistance screening of sugar beet varieties

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    ¬© 2023, This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-023-01485-zSugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the major sugar sources in the world. Rhizoctonia solani causes damping-off and crown and root rot that can result in significant yield and economic losses. R. solani AG 2‚Äď2 IIIB is the most damaging anastomosis group in sugar beet production. In this study, we evaluated three different types of inoculums, namely barley grains colonized by fungal mycelium (CBG), agar plugs containing fungal mycelia (MAP), and sclerotia (SCL) for their ease of production and efficacy in inducing disease in sugar beet. First, the fungal growth rate and sclerotia production were compared on six types of media, clarified V8 [CV8], potato dextrose agar [PDA], metalaxyl benomyl vancomycin agar [MBV], yeast malt agar [YMA], corn meal agar [CMA], and oatmeal agar [OMA]. The fungus grew faster and produced more sclerotia in CV8 medium than in other media (P < 0.05). The rate of fungal growth from CBG, MAP, and SCL was evaluated. The in vitro rate of growth of R. solani was faster when originated from MAP than from SCL (P < 0.05) but equal to that from CBG. The different inoculum forms were then used to inoculate seeds at planting and 4-leaf stage sugar beet plants to evaluate the disease incidence and severity. R. solani on CBG caused greater severity. Overall, CBG was the best form of inoculum due to its ease of inoculum production, low cost, and ability to consistently cause severe disease symptoms on sugar beet plants.Peer reviewe

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations1,2,3,4,5,6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories7, we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    International audienceAbstract Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations 1‚Äď6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories 7 , we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees

    Identified charged-hadron production in pp++Al, 3^3He++Au, and Cu++Au collisions at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200 GeV and in U++U collisions at sNN=193\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193 GeV

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    International audienceThe PHENIX experiment has performed a systematic study of identified charged-hadron (ŌĬĪ\pi^\pm, K¬ĪK^\pm, pp, pňČ\bar{p}) production at midrapidity in pp++Al, 3^3He++Au, Cu++Au collisions at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200 GeV and U++U collisions at sNN=193\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193 GeV. Identified charged-hadron invariant transverse-momentum (pTp_T) and transverse-mass (mTm_T) spectra are presented and interpreted in terms of radially expanding thermalized systems. The particle ratios of K/ŌÄK/\pi and p/ŌÄp/\pi have been measured in different centrality ranges of large (Cu++Au, U++U) and small (pp++Al, 3^3He++Au) collision systems. The values of K/ŌÄK/\pi ratios measured in all considered collision systems were found to be consistent with those measured in pp++pp collisions. However the values of p/ŌÄp/\pi ratios measured in large collision systems reach the values of ‚Čą0.6\approx0.6, which is ‚Čą2\approx2 times larger than in pp++pp collisions. These results can be qualitatively understood in terms of the baryon enhancement expected from hadronization by recombination. Identified charged-hadron nuclear-modification factors (RABR_{AB}) are also presented. Enhancement of proton RABR_{AB} values over meson RABR_{AB} values was observed in central 3^3He++Au, Cu++Au, and U++U collisions. The proton RABR_{AB} values measured in pp++Al collision system were found to be consistent with RABR_{AB} values of Ōē\phi, ŌĬĪ\pi^\pm, K¬ĪK^\pm, and ŌÄ0\pi^0 mesons, which may indicate that the size of the system produced in pp++Al collisions is too small for recombination to cause a noticeable increase in proton production

    The DESPEC setup for GSI and FAIR

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    Agenda prioritaria en ciencia, tecnología e innovación para el Sector Salud, Región Sur occidente, 2010-2020: Resumen ejecutivo del Informe final, marzo 2012

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    COLCIENCIAS y la Organizaci√≥n de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educaci√≥n (OEI), financiaron en todo el pa√≠s proyectos para la formulaci√≥n de agendas regionales que sirvieran a la identificaci√≥n de problemas prioritarios con el objetivo de canalizar los recursos del Plan Estrat√©gico Nacional de CTI del pr√≥ximo decenio. En el marco de este proceso, la Escuela de Salud P√ļblica de la Universidad del Valle lider√≥ la consulta en la denominada regi√≥n Sur-occidente (constituida por los departamentos de Valle, Cauca, Nari√Īo, Tolima y Huila), a trav√©s de la interacci√≥n de diversos sectores de los cinco departamentos, para la construcci√≥n de una agenda priorizada de temas con un enfoque de desarrollo humano y competitividad, que servir√° de insumo al Plan Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n en Salud y ser√° la base del Plan Regional de Ciencia y Tecnolog√≠a de Salud.Organizaci√≥n de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educaci√≥n, OEIDepartamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n, COLCIENCIA

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    Trees structure the Earth‚Äôs most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm across 1,568 locations1,2,3,4,5,6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth‚Äôs 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10‚ÄČcm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories7, we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world‚Äôs most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees

    Identified charged-hadron production in pp++Al, 3^3He++Au, and Cu++Au collisions at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200 GeV and in U++U collisions at sNN=193\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193 GeV

    No full text
    International audienceThe PHENIX experiment has performed a systematic study of identified charged-hadron (ŌĬĪ\pi^\pm, K¬ĪK^\pm, pp, pňČ\bar{p}) production at midrapidity in pp++Al, 3^3He++Au, Cu++Au collisions at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200 GeV and U++U collisions at sNN=193\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193 GeV. Identified charged-hadron invariant transverse-momentum (pTp_T) and transverse-mass (mTm_T) spectra are presented and interpreted in terms of radially expanding thermalized systems. The particle ratios of K/ŌÄK/\pi and p/ŌÄp/\pi have been measured in different centrality ranges of large (Cu++Au, U++U) and small (pp++Al, 3^3He++Au) collision systems. The values of K/ŌÄK/\pi ratios measured in all considered collision systems were found to be consistent with those measured in pp++pp collisions. However the values of p/ŌÄp/\pi ratios measured in large collision systems reach the values of ‚Čą0.6\approx0.6, which is ‚Čą2\approx2 times larger than in pp++pp collisions. These results can be qualitatively understood in terms of the baryon enhancement expected from hadronization by recombination. Identified charged-hadron nuclear-modification factors (RABR_{AB}) are also presented. Enhancement of proton RABR_{AB} values over meson RABR_{AB} values was observed in central 3^3He++Au, Cu++Au, and U++U collisions. The proton RABR_{AB} values measured in pp++Al collision system were found to be consistent with RABR_{AB} values of Ōē\phi, ŌĬĪ\pi^\pm, K¬ĪK^\pm, and ŌÄ0\pi^0 mesons, which may indicate that the size of the system produced in pp++Al collisions is too small for recombination to cause a noticeable increase in proton production
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