446 research outputs found

    Negative first impression judgements of autistic children by non-autistic adults

    Get PDF
    IntroductionAlthough autism inclusion and acceptance has increased in recent years, autistic people continue to face stigmatization, exclusion, and victimization. Based on brief 10-second videos, non-autistic adults rate autistic adults less favourably than they rate non-autistic adults in terms of traits and behavioural intentions. In the current study, we extended this paradigm to investigate the first impressions of autistic and non-autistic children by non-autistic adult raters and examined the relationship between the rater's own characteristics and bias against autistic children.MethodSegments of video recorded interviews from 15 autistic and 15 non-autistic children were shown to 346 undergraduate students in audio with video, audio only, video only, transcript, or still image conditions. Participants rated each child on a series of traits and behavioural intentions toward the child, and then completed a series of questionnaires measuring their own social competence, autistic traits, quantity and quality of past experiences with autistic people, and explicit autism stigma.ResultsOverall, autistic children were rated more negatively than non-autistic children, particularly in conditions containing audio. Raters with higher social competence and explicit autism stigma rated autistic children more negatively, whereas raters with more autistic traits and more positive past experiences with autistic people rated autistic children more positively.DiscussionThese rapid negative judgments may contribute to the social exclusion experienced by autistic children. The findings indicate that certain personal characteristics may be related to more stigmatised views of autism and decreased willingness to interact with the autistic person. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the social inclusion and well-being of autistic people

    Data_Sheet_1_Negative first impression judgements of autistic children by non-autistic adults.docx

    No full text
    IntroductionAlthough autism inclusion and acceptance has increased in recent years, autistic people continue to face stigmatization, exclusion, and victimization. Based on brief 10-second videos, non-autistic adults rate autistic adults less favourably than they rate non-autistic adults in terms of traits and behavioural intentions. In the current study, we extended this paradigm to investigate the first impressions of autistic and non-autistic children by non-autistic adult raters and examined the relationship between the rater's own characteristics and bias against autistic children.MethodSegments of video recorded interviews from 15 autistic and 15 non-autistic children were shown to 346 undergraduate students in audio with video, audio only, video only, transcript, or still image conditions. Participants rated each child on a series of traits and behavioural intentions toward the child, and then completed a series of questionnaires measuring their own social competence, autistic traits, quantity and quality of past experiences with autistic people, and explicit autism stigma.ResultsOverall, autistic children were rated more negatively than non-autistic children, particularly in conditions containing audio. Raters with higher social competence and explicit autism stigma rated autistic children more negatively, whereas raters with more autistic traits and more positive past experiences with autistic people rated autistic children more positively.DiscussionThese rapid negative judgments may contribute to the social exclusion experienced by autistic children. The findings indicate that certain personal characteristics may be related to more stigmatised views of autism and decreased willingness to interact with the autistic person. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the social inclusion and well-being of autistic people.</p

    Elemental fragmentation cross sections for a O-16 beam of 400 MeV/u kinetic energy interacting with a graphite target using the FOOT Delta E-TOF detectors

    Get PDF
    The study of nuclear fragmentation plays a central role in many important applications: from the study of Particle Therapy (PT) up to radiation protection for space (RPS) missions and the design of shielding for nuclear reactors. The FragmentatiOn Of Target (FOOT) collaboration aims to study the nuclear reactions that describe the interactions with matter of different light ions (like H-1, He-4, C-12, O-16) of interest for such applications, performing double differential fragmentation cross section measurements in the energy range of interest for PT and RPS. In this manuscript, we present the analysis of the data collected in the interactions of an oxygen ion beam of 400 MeV/u with a graphite target using a partial FOOT setup, at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research facility in Darmstadt. During the data taking the magnets, the silicon trackers and the calorimeter foreseen in the final FOOT setup were not yet available, and hence precise measurements of the fragments kinetic energy, momentum and mass were not possible. However, using the FOOT scintillator detectors for the time of flight (TOF) and energy loss (Delta E) measurements together with a drift chamber, used as beam monitor, it was possible to measure the elemental fragmentation cross sections. The reduced detector set-up and the limited available statistics allowed anyway to obtain relevant results, providing statistically significant measurements of cross sections eagerly needed for PT and RPS applications. Whenever possible the obtained results have been compared with existing measurements helping in discriminating between conflicting results in the literature and demonstrating at the same time the proper functioning of the FOOT Delta E-TOF system. Finally, the obtained fragmentation cross sections are compared to the Monte Carlo predictions obtained with the FLUKA software

    Elemental fragmentation cross sections for a 16O^{16}O beam of 400 MeV/u kinetic energy interacting with a graphite target using the FOOT ΔE-TOF detectors

    Get PDF
    International audienceThe study of nuclear fragmentation plays a central role in many important applications: from the study of Particle Therapy (PT) up to radiation protection for space (RPS) missions and the design of shielding for nuclear reactors. The FragmentatiOn Of Target (FOOT) collaboration aims to study the nuclear reactions that describe the interactions with matter of different light ions (like \Hy, \He, \twC, \siO%, \Si, \Ca, \Fe ) of interest for such applications, performing double differential fragmentation cross section measurements in the energy range of interest for PT and RPS. In this manuscript, we present the analysis of the data collected in the interactions of an oxygen ion beam of 400 MeV/nucleon with a graphite target using a partial FOOT setup, at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research facility in Darmstadt. During the data taking the magnets, the silicon trackers and the calorimeter foreseen in the final FOOT setup were not yet available, and hence precise measurements of the fragments kinetic energy, momentum and mass were not possible. However, using the FOOT scintillator detectors for the time of flight (TOF) and energy loss (ΔE\Delta E) measurements together with a drift chamber, used as beam monitor, it was possible to measure the elemental fragmentation cross sections. The reduced detector set-up and the limited available statistics allowed anyway to obtain relevant results, providing statistically significant measurements of cross sections eagerly needed for PT and RPS applications. Whenever possible the obtained results have been compared with existing measurements helping in discriminating between conflicting results in the literature and demonstrating at the same time the proper functioning of the FOOT Δ\DeltaE-TOF system. Finally, the obtained fragmentation cross sections are compared to the Monte Carlo predictions obtained with the FLUKA software

    Characterization of 150?m thick silicon microstrip prototype for the FOOT experiment

    No full text
    The goals of the FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) experiment are to measure the proton double differential fragmentation cross-section on H, C, O targets at beam energies of interest for hadrontherapy (50-250MeV for protons and 50-400MeV/u for carbon ions), and also at higher energy, up to 1 GeV/u for radioprotection in space. Given the short range of the fragments, an inverse kinematic approach has been chosen, requiring precise tracking capabilities for charged particles. One of the subsystems designed for the experiment will be the MSD (Microstrip Silicon Detector), consisting of three x-y measurement planes, each one made by two single sided silicon microstrip sensors. In this document, we will present a detailed description of the first MSD prototype assembly, developed by INFN Perugia group and the subsequent characterization of the detector performance. The prototype is a wide area ( similar to 100 cm(2)) single sensor, 150 mu m thick to reduce material budget and fragmentation probability along the beam path, with 50 mu m strip pitch and 2 floating strip readout approach. The pitch adapter to connect strips with the readout channels of the ASIC has been implemented directly on the silicon surface. Beside the interest for the FOOT experiment, the results in terms of cluster signal, signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range of the readout chips, as well as long-term stability studies in terms of noise, are relevant also for other experiments where the use of thin sensors is crucial

    Measuring the Impact of Nuclear Interaction in Particle Therapy and in Radio Protection in Space: the FOOT Experiment

    Get PDF
    In Charged Particle Therapy (PT) proton or 12C beams are used to treat deep-seated solid tumors exploiting the advantageous characteristics of charged particles energy deposition in matter. For such projectiles, the maximum of the dose is released at the end of the beam range, in the Bragg peak region, where the tumour is located. However, the nuclear interactions of the beam nuclei with the patient tissues can induce the fragmentation of projectiles and/or target nuclei and needs to be carefully taken into account when planning the treatment. In proton treatments, the target fragmentation produces low energy, short range fragments along all the beam path, that deposit a non-negligible dose especially in the first crossed tissues. On the other hand, in treatments performed using 12C, or other (4He or 16O) ions of interest, the main concern is related to the production of long range fragments that can release their dose in the healthy tissues beyond the Bragg peak. Understanding nuclear fragmentation processes is of interest also for radiation protection in human space flight applications, in view of deep space missions. In particular 4He and high-energy charged particles, mainly 12C, 16O, 28Si and 56Fe, provide the main source of absorbed dose in astronauts outside the atmosphere. The nuclear fragmentation properties of the materials used to build the spacecrafts need to be known with high accuracy in order to optimise the shielding against the space radiation. The study of the impact of these processes, which is of interest both for PT and space radioprotection applications, suffers at present from the limited experimental precision achieved on the relevant nuclear cross sections that compromise the reliability of the available computational models. The FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) collaboration, composed of researchers from France, Germany, Italy and Japan, designed an experiment to study these nuclear processes and measure the corresponding fragmentation cross sections. In this work we discuss the physics motivations of FOOT, describing in detail the present detector design and the expected performances, coming from the optimization studies based on accurate FLUKA MC simulations and preliminary beam test results. The measurements planned will be also presented

    Charge identification of fragments with the emulsion spectrometer of the FOOT experiment

    Get PDF
    The FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) experi- ment is an international project designed to carry out the fragmentation cross-sectional measurements relevant for charged particle therapy (CPT), a technique based on the use of charged particle beams for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. The FOOT detector consists of an electronic setup for the identification of Z &gt;= 3 fragments and an emulsion spectrometer for Z &lt;= 3 fragments. The first data taking was performed in 2019 at the GSI facility(Darmstadt, Germany). In this study, the charge identifi-cation of fragments induced by exposing an emulsion detector, embedding a C2H4 target, to an oxygen ion beam of 200 MeV/n is discussed. The charge identifica-tion is based on the controlled fading of nuclear emulsions in order to extend their dynamic range in the ionization response

    Measuring the Impact of Nuclear Interaction in Particle Therapy and in Radio Protection in Space : the FOOT Experiment

    Get PDF
    In Charged Particle Therapy (PT) proton or 12C beams are used to treat deep-seated solid tumors exploiting the advantageous characteristics of charged particles energy deposition in matter. For such projectiles, the maximum of the dose is released at the end of the beam range, in the Bragg peak region, where the tumour is located. However, the nuclear interactions of the beam nuclei with the patient tissues can induce the fragmentation of projectiles and/or target nuclei and needs to be carefully taken into account when planning the treatment. In proton treatments, the target fragmentation produces low energy, short range fragments along all the beam path, that deposit a non-negligible dose especially in the first crossed tissues. On the other hand, in treatments performed using 12C, or other (4He or 16O) ions of interest, the main concern is related to the production of long range fragments that can release their dose in the healthy tissues beyond the Bragg peak. Understanding nuclear fragmentation processes is of interest also for radiation protection in human space flight applications, in view of deep space missions. In particular 4He and high-energy charged particles, mainly 12C, 16O, 28Si and 56Fe, provide the main source of absorbed dose in astronauts outside the atmosphere. The nuclear fragmentation properties of the materials used to build the spacecrafts need to be known with high accuracy in order to optimise the shielding against the space radiation. The study of the impact of these processes, which is of interest both for PT and space radioprotection applications, suffers at present from the limited experimental precision achieved on the relevant nuclear cross sections that compromise the reliability of the available computational models. The FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) collaboration, composed of researchers from France, Germany, Italy and Japan, designed an experiment to study these nuclear processes and measure the corresponding fragmentation cross sections. In this work we discuss the physics motivations of FOOT, describing in detail the present detector design and the expected performances, coming from the optimization studies based on accurate FLUKA MC simulations and preliminary beam test results. The measurements planned will be also presented

    Enhancing the understanding of fragmentation processes in hadrontherapy and radioprotection in space with the FOOT experiment

    No full text
    During proton and carbon ions cancer treatment, nuclear interactions of the beam nuclei with the patient tissues always occur: the former leads to target fragmentation only, the latter to both projectile and target fragments production. In proton therapy the low-energy, high-charge and therefore short-range fragments produced along the beam path in the target fragmentation process may have higher biological effectiveness compared to protons, resulting in a not negligible effect on the delivered dose in a region before the tumor site. In carbon treatments the long range of projectile fragments results in a dose deposition in the healthy tissues behind the tumor site. Therefore, precise fragmentation cross section data would be of great importance to further optimize treatments. At the same time, such data would help improving the design of the shielding of spaceships, especially in view of long distance travels (i.e. Mars human exploration). In fact, nuclear fragmentation occurring between the space background radiation and spacecrafts materials changes the composition of the radiation field and thus the dose received by the astronauts. The FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) experiment has been designed to investigate nuclear fragmentation processes of interest for particle therapy and space radiation protection with a precision in the cross section measurements around 5%. In this work the physics motivations of FOOT and the final design of the experiment will be presented. A performances study of the electronic setup based on FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations and a preliminary analysis of experimental data are reported as well
    • …
    corecore