9,386 research outputs found

    Altered excitation-contraction coupling in human chronic atrial fibrillation

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    This review focuses on the (mal)adaptive processes in atrial excitation-contraction coupling occurring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Cellular remodeling includes shortening of the atrial action potential duration and effective refractory period, depressed intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> transient, and reduced myocyte contractility. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the ionic bases underlying these changes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of excitation-contraction-coupling remodeling in the fibrillating human atria is important to identify new potential targets for AF therapy

    SMAUG: a new technique for the deprojection of galaxy clusters

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    This paper presents a new technique for reconstructing the spatial distributions of hydrogen, temperature and metal abundance of a galaxy cluster. These quantities are worked out from the X-ray spectrum, modeled starting from few analytical functions describing their spatial distributions. These functions depend upon some parameters, determined by fitting the model to the observed spectrum. We have implemented this technique as a new model in the XSPEC software analysis package. We describe the details of the method, and apply it to work out the structure of the cluster A1795. We combine the observation of three satellites, exploiting the high spatial resolution of Chandra for the cluster core, the wide collecting area of XMM-Newton for the intermediate regions and the large field of view of Beppo-SAX for the outer regions. We also test the validity and precision of our method by i) comparing its results with those from a geometrical deprojection, ii) examining the spectral residuals at different radii of the cluster and iii) reprojecting the unfolded profiles and comparing them directly to the measured quantities. Our analytical method yields the parameters defining the spatial functions directly from the spectra. Their explicit knowledge allows a straightforward derivation of other indirect physical quantities like the gravitating mass, as well as a fast and easy estimate of the profiles uncertainties.Comment: 24 pages, 11 figures, 3 tables; emulateapj; accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Jets and outflows in Radio Galaxies: implications for AGN feedback

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    One of the main debated astrophysical problems is the role of the AGN feedback in galaxy formation. It is known that massive black holes have a profound effect on the formation and evolution of galaxies, but how black holes and galaxies communicate is still an unsolved problem. For Radio Galaxies, feedback studies have mainly focused on jet/cavity systems in the most massive and X-ray luminous galaxy clusters. The recent high-resolution detection of warm absorbers in some Broad Line Radio Galaxies allow us to investigate the interplay between the nuclear engine and the surrounding medium from a different perspective. We report on the detection of warm absorbers in two Broad Line Radio Galaxies, 3C 382 and 3C 390.3, and discuss the physical and energetic properties of the absorbing gas. Finally, we attempt a comparison between radio-loud and radio-quiet outflows.Comment: To be published in the proceedings of High Energy Phenomena in Relativistic Outflows III (HEPRO III, IJMPCS). 4 pages, 2 figure

    The luminosity function of cluster galaxies. II. Data reduction procedures applied to the cluster Abell 496

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    We initiated a large project aimed to estimate the Luminosity Function of galaxies in clusters and to evaluate its relation to cluster morphology. With this paper we deem necessary to outline the general procedures of the data reduction and details of the data analysis. The cluster sample includes the brightest southern ROSAT all-sky survey clusters with z < 0.1. These have been observed in three colours g, r, i, and mapped up to a few core radii using a mosaic of CCD frames. E/S0 galaxies in the cluster core are singled out both by morphology (for the brightest galaxies), and by colour. The details of the data reduction procedure are illustrated via the analysis of the cluster Abell 496, which has been used as a pilot cluster for the whole program. The related photometric catalogue consists of 2355 objects. The limiting magnitudes (the reference Surface Brightness is given in parenthesis) in the various colours are respectively g(25.5) = 24.14, r(25.5) = 24.46, i(25.0) = 23.75$. These correspond to the limiting absolute magnitudes -12.28, -11.96 and -12.67 (H_0=50 km/sec/Mpc).Comment: 17 pages, 19 ps figures, aa.cl

    Radiative cooling, heating and thermal conduction in M87

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    The crisis of the standard cooling flow model brought about by Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of galaxy clusters, has led to the development of several models which explore different heating processes in order to assess if they can quench the cooling flow. Among the most appealing mechanisms are thermal conduction and heating through buoyant gas deposited in the ICM by AGNs. We combine Virgo/M87 observations of three satellites (Chandra, XMM-Newton and Beppo-SAX) to inspect the dynamics of the ICM in the center of the cluster. Using the spectral deprojection technique, we derive the physical quantities describing the ICM and determine the extra-heating needed to balance the cooling flow assuming that thermal conduction operates at a fixed fraction of the Spitzer value. We assume that the extra-heating is due to buoyant gas and we fit the data using the model developed by Ruszkowski and Begelman (2002). We derive a scale radius for the model of ‚ąľ5\sim 5 kpc, which is comparable with the M87 AGN jet extension, and a required luminosity of the AGN of a few√ó1042few \times 10^{42} erg s‚ąí1^{-1}, which is comparable to the observed AGN luminosity. We discuss a scenario where the buoyant bubbles are filled of relativistic particles and magnetic field responsible for the radio emission in M87. The AGN is supposed to be intermittent and to inject populations of buoyant bubbles through a succession of outbursts. We also study the X-ray cool component detected in the radio lobes and suggest that it is structured in blobs which are tied to the radio buoyant bubbles.Comment: 25 pages, 10 figures and 2 tables. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Incidence of the boundary shape in the effective theory of fractional quantum Hall edges

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    Starting from a microscopic description of a system of strongly interacting electrons in a strong magnetic field in a finite geometry, we construct the boundary low energy effective theory for a fractional quantum Hall droplet taking into account the effects of a smooth edge. The effective theory obtained is the standard chiral boson theory (chiral Luttinger theory) with an additional self-interacting term which is induced by the boundary. As an example of the consequences of this model, we show that such modification leads to a non-universal reduction in the tunnelling exponent which is independent of the filling fraction. This is in qualitative agreement with experiments, that systematically found exponents smaller than those predicted by the ordinary chiral Luttinger liquid theory.Comment: 12 pages, minor changes, replaced by published versio

    Catchment Dissolved Organic Carbon Transport: A Modeling Approach Combining Water Travel Times and Reactivity Continuum

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    Quantifying the transfer of organic carbon from the terrestrial to the riverine ecosystems is of crucial importance to fully appreciate the carbon cycle at the catchment, regional and global scales. In this study, we propose a framework for modeling the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from hillslopes to stream and river networks which couples a transport model based on travel time distributions with the reactivity continuum (RC) approach to model DOC degradation. We test the model by applying it to the Plynlimon catchments (UK) exploiting both weekly and high-frequency (7-hr interval) time-series. We use information about chloride to get an independent estimate of water travel times using the framework of StorAge Selection functions. Following the RC model, the composition and the degradation of DOC along the flowpaths, and its consequent concentration in the streamflow, is described assuming that DOC is composed by a mixture of compounds that follows a continuous spectrum of reactivity. For the high-frequency data set, the model is able to reproduce DOC streamflow concentrations and to capture the complex hysteretic relation between DOC concentration and discharge. Weekly data are instead not frequent enough to properly describe DOC dynamics in this catchment. The distribution of the age of the water comprised in the streamflow proves thus a key variable to predict the quantity and the reactivity of the DOC exported from soils, and the effect of hydrologic variability on this process

    3C 33: another case of photoionized soft X-ray emission in radio galaxies

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    All the observations available in the Chandra and XMM-Newton archives have been used to investigate the X-ray spectral properties of 3C 33. In this paper is presented a complete X-ray analysis of the nuclear emission of this narrow line radio galaxy. The broad band spectrum of 3C 33 is complex. The hard part resembles that of Seyfert 2 galaxies, with a heavily obscured nuclear continuum (N_H~10^23 cm^-2) and a prominent Fe Kalpha line. This represents the nuclear radiation directly observed in transmission through a cold circumnuclear gas. On the other hand an unabsorbed continuum plus emission lines seem to fit well the soft part of the spectrum (0.5-2 keV) suggesting that the jet does not significantly contribute to the X-ray emission. We discuss the possible collisional or photoionized origin of the gas that emits the soft X-ray lines. Our results, strengthened by optical spectroscopy favor the photoionization scenario.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in A&
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