227 research outputs found

    In Vitro Synergy of Isavuconazole Combined With Colistin Against Common Candida Species

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    Interactions of isavuconazole and colistin were evaluated against 57 common Candida strains belonging to the species Candida albicans (n = 10), Candida glabrata (n = 10), Candida kefyr (n = 8), Candida krusei (n = 10), Candida parapsilosis (n = 9), and Candida tropicalis (n = 10) by a broth microdilution checkerboard technique based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) reference methodology for antifungal susceptibility testing. Results were analyzed with the fractional inhibitory concentration index and by the response surface analysis. Interpretation by the fractional inhibitory concentration index showed synergy for 50%, 80%, 90%, and 90% of the C. kefyr, C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis strains, respectively. Combination of isavuconazole with colistin against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis exhibited only indifference for 100% and 90% of the strains, respectively. The results were confirmed by response surface analysis for all species except for C. glabrata, for which an indifferent interaction was found for the majority of strains. Antagonistic interaction was never seen regardless of the interpretation model was used

    Molecular mechanisms of acquired antifungal drug resistance in principal fungal pathogens and EUCAST guidance for their laboratory detection and clinical implications

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    The increasing incidence and changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections continue to present many challenges to their effective management. The repertoire of antifungal drugs available for treatment is still limited although there are new antifungals on the horizon. Successful treatment of invasive mycoses is dependent on a mix of pathogen-, host- and antifungal drug-related factors. Laboratories need to be adept at detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples in order to effectively guide treatment by identifying isolates with acquired drug resistance. While there are international guidelines on how to conduct in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing, these are not performed as widely as for bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, fungi generally are recovered in cultures more slowly than bacteria, and often cannot be cultured in the laboratory. Therefore, non-culture-based methods, including molecular tests, to detect fungi in clinical specimens are increasingly important in patient management and are becoming more reliable as technology improves. Molecular methods can also be used for detection of target gene mutations or other mechanisms that predict antifungal drug resistance. This review addresses acquired antifungal drug resistance in the principal human fungal pathogens and describes known resistance mechanisms and what in-house and commercial tools are available for their detection. It is emphasized that this approach should be complementary to culture-based susceptibility testing, given the range of mutations, resistance mechanisms and target genes that may be present in clinical isolates, but may not be included in current molecular assays

    Synergistic In Vitro Interaction of Isavuconazole and Isoquercitrin against Candida glabrata

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    In vitro interactions of broad-spectrum azole isavuconazole with flavonoid isoquercitrin were evaluated by a broth microdilution checkerboard technique based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) reference methodology for antifungal susceptibility testing against 60 Candida strains belonging to the species Candida albicans (n = 10), Candida glabrata (n = 30), Candida kefyr (n = 6), Candida krusei (n = 5), Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), and Candida tropicalis (n = 5). The results were analyzed with the fractional inhibitory concentration index and by response surface analysis based on the Bliss model. Synergy was found for all C. glabrata strains, when the results were interpreted by the fractional inhibitory concentration index, and for 60% of the strains when response surface analysis was used. Interaction for all other species was indifferent for all strains tested, whatever interpretation model used. Importantly, antagonistic interaction was never observed

    In Vitro Activity of Amphotericin B in Combination with Colistin against Fungi Responsible for Invasive Infections

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    The in vitro interaction of amphotericin B in combination with colistin was evaluated against a total of 86 strains comprising of 47 Candida species (10 Candida albicans, 15 Candida auris, five Candida glabrata, three Candida kefyr, five Candida krusei, four Candida parapsilosis and five Candida tropicalis), 29 Aspergillus species (five Aspergillus flavus, 10 Aspergillus fumigatus, four Aspergillus nidulans, five Aspergillus niger, and five Aspergillus terreus), and 10 Rhizopus species (seven Rhizopus arrhizus, one Rhizopus delemar and two Rhizopus microsporus) strains. For the determination of the interaction, a microdilution checkerboard technique based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing was used. Results of the checkerboard technique were evaluated by the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) based on the Loewe additivity model for all isolates. Different inhibition endpoints were used to capture both the interaction at MIC and sub-MIC levels. Additionally, checkerboard technique results for Candida species were evaluated by response surface analysis based on the Bliss independence model. Against common Candida species, the combination was synergistic for 75% of the strains by FICI and for 66% of the strains by response surface analysis. For C. tropicalis, the interaction was antagonistic for three isolates by FICI, but antagonism was not confirmed by response surface analysis. Interestingly, synergistic and antagonistic FICIs were simultaneously present on checkboard microplates of all three strains. Against C. auris the combination was synergistic for 73% of the strains by response surface analysis and for 33% of the strains by FICI. This discrepancy could be related to the insensitivity of the FICI to detect weak interactions. Interaction for all other strains was indifferent. For Aspergillus and Rhizopus species combination exhibited only indifferent interactions against all tested strains

    Multicenter Evaluation of MIC Distributions for Epidemiologic Cutoff Value Definition To Detect Amphotericin B, Posaconazole, and Itraconazole Resistance among the Most Clinically Relevant Species of <i>Mucorales</i>

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    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) have not been established for the Mucorales and any antifungal agent. In lieu of CBPs, epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are proposed for amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole and four Mucorales species. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined with available pooled CLSI MICs from 14 laboratories (Argentina, Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States) as follows: 10 Apophysomyces variabilis, 32 Cunninghamella bertholletiae, 136 Lichtheimia corymbifera, 10 Mucor indicus, 123 M. circinelloides, 19 M. ramosissimus, 349 Rhizopus arrhizus, 146 R. microsporus, 33 Rhizomucor pusillus, and 36 Syncephalastrum racemosum isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MICs were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs comprising Ôëą95% and Ôëą97.5% of the modeled populations were as follows: amphotericin B ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2 ╬╝g/ml, those for M. circinelloides were 1 and 2 ╬╝g/ml, those for R. arrhizus were 2 and 4 ╬╝g/ml, and those for R. microsporus were 2 and 2 ╬╝g/ml, respectively; posaconazole ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2, those for M. circinelloides were 4 and 4, those for R. arrhizus were 1 and 2, and those for R. microsporus were 1 and 2, respectively; both itraconazole ECVs for R. arrhizus were 2 ╬╝g/ml. ECVs may aid in detecting emerging resistance or isolates with reduced susceptibility (non-WT MICs) to the agents evaluated.Facultad de Ciencias Veterinaria

    Invasive Aspergillosis Due to Aspergillus Section Usti: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

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    none33siBACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. of section Usti (A. ustus) represent a rare cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). This multicenter study describes the epidemiology and outcome of A. ustus infections. METHODS: Patients with A. ustus isolated from any clinical specimen were retrospectively identified in 22 hospitals from 8 countries. When available, isolates were sent for species identification (BenA/CaM sequencing) and antifungal susceptibility testing. Additional cases were identified by review of the literature. Cases were classified as proven/probable IA or no infection, according to standard international criteria. RESULTS: Clinical report forms were obtained for 90 patients, of whom 27 had proven/probable IA. An additional 45 cases were identified from literature review for a total of 72 cases of proven/probable IA. Hematopoietic cell and solid-organ transplant recipients accounted for 47% and 33% cases, respectively. Only 8% patients were neutropenic at time of diagnosis. Ongoing antimold prophylaxis was present in 47% of cases. Pulmonary IA represented 67% of cases. Primary or secondary extrapulmonary sites of infection were observed in 46% of cases, with skin being affected in 28% of cases. Multiple antifungal drugs were used (consecutively or in combination) in 67% of cases. The 24-week mortality rate was 58%. A. calidoustus was the most frequent causal agent. Minimal inhibitory concentrations encompassing 90% isolates (MIC90) were 1, 8, &gt;16, and 4 ┬Ág/mL for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus ustus IA mainly occurred in nonneutropenic transplant patients and was frequently associated with extrapulmonary sites of infection. Mortality rate was high and optimal antifungal therapy remains to be defined.mixedGlampedakis E.; Cassaing S.; Fekkar A.; Dannaoui E.; Bougnoux M.-E.; Bretagne S.; Neofytos D.; Schreiber P.W.; Hennequin C.; Morio F.; Shadrivova O.; Bongomin F.; Fernandez-Ruiz M.; Bellanger A.P.; Arikan-Akdagli S.; Erard V.; Aigner M.; Paolucci M.; Khanna N.; Charpentier E.; Bonnal C.; Brun S.; Gabriel F.; Riat A.; Zbinden R.; Le Pape P.; Klimko N.; Lewis R.E.; Richardson M.; Inkaya A.C.; Coste A.T.; Bochud P.-Y.; Lamoth F.Glampedakis E.; Cassaing S.; Fekkar A.; Dannaoui E.; Bougnoux M.-E.; Bretagne S.; Neofytos D.; Schreiber P.W.; Hennequin C.; Morio F.; Shadrivova O.; Bongomin F.; Fernandez-Ruiz M.; Bellanger A.P.; Arikan-Akdagli S.; Erard V.; Aigner M.; Paolucci M.; Khanna N.; Charpentier E.; Bonnal C.; Brun S.; Gabriel F.; Riat A.; Zbinden R.; Le Pape P.; Klimko N.; Lewis R.E.; Richardson M.; Inkaya A.C.; Coste A.T.; Bochud P.-Y.; Lamoth F

    Mixinyeast: A multicenter study on mixed yeast infections

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    Invasive candidiasis remains one of the most prevalent systemic mycoses, and several studies have documented the presence of mixed yeast (MY) infections. Here, we describe the epi-demiology, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of MY infections causing invasive candidiasis in a multicenter prospective study. Thirty-four centers from 14 countries participated. Samples were collected in each center between April to September 2018, and they were sent to a reference center to confirm identification by sequencing methods and to perform antifungal susceptibility testing, according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 6895 yeast cultures were identified and MY occurred in 150 cases (2.2%). Europe ac-counted for the highest number of centers, with an overall MY rate of 4.2% (118 out of 2840 yeast cultures). Of 122 MY cases, the most frequent combinations were Candida albicans/C. glabrata (42, 34.4%), C. albicans/C. parapsilosis (17, 14%), and C. glabrata/C. tropicalis (8, 6.5%). All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, 6.4% were fluconazole-resistant, and two isolates (1.6%) were echinocandin-resistant. Accurate identification of the species involved in MY infections is essential to guide treatment decisions. ┬ę 2020 by the authors. Li-censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Etest ECVs/ECOFFs for detection of resistance in prevalent and three non-prevalent Candida spp. to triazoles and amphotericin B and Aspergillus spp. to caspofungin: Further assessment of modal variability

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    International audienceSusceptibility testing is an important tool in the clinical setting; its utility is based on the availability of categorical endpoints, breakpoints (BPs) or epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs/ECOFFs). CLSI and EUCAST have developed antifungal susceptibility testing, BPs and ECVs for some fungal species. Although the Concentration Gradient Strip BioMerieux Etest is useful for routine testing in the clinical laboratory, ECVs are not available for all agent/species; the lack of clinical data precludes development of BPs. We re-evaluated and consolidated Etest data points from three previous studies, and included new data. We defined ECOFFinder Etest ECVs for three sets of species/agent combinations: fluconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole and 8 Candida spp.; amphotericin B and 3 non-prevalent Candida spp.; and caspofungin and 5 Aspergillus spp. The total of Etest MICs from 23 laboratories (Europe, the Americas, South Africa) included (antifungal agent/dependent): 17,242 Candida albicans, 244 C. dubliniensis, 5,129 C. glabrata species complex (SC), 275 C. guilliermondii (Meyerozyma guilliermondii), 1,133 C. krusei (Pichia kudriavzevii), 933 C. kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus), 519 C. lusitaniae (Clavispora lusitaniae), 2,947 C. parapsilosis SC, 2,214 C. tropicalis, 3,212 Aspergillus fumigatus, 232 A. flavus, 181 A. niger, and 267 A. terreus SC isolates. Triazole MICs for 66 confirmed non-wild-type (non-WT) Candida isolates were available (ERG11 point mutations). Distributions fulfilling CLSI ECV criteria were pooled and ECOFFinder Etest ECVs were established for triazoles (9 Candida spp.); amphotericin B (3 less-prevalent Candida spp.) and caspofungin (4 Aspergillus spp.). Etest fluconazole ECVs could be good detectors of Candida non-WT isolates (59/61 Non-WT: 4 of 6 species)

    Invasive Aspergillosis Due to Aspergillus Section Usti: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

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    Aspergillus spp. of section Usti (A. ustus) represent a rare cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). This multicenter study describes the epidemiology and outcome of A. ustus infections. Patients with A. ustus isolated from any clinical specimen were retrospectively identified in 22 hospitals from 8 countries. When available, isolates were sent for species identification (BenA/CaM sequencing) and antifungal susceptibility testing. Additional cases were identified by review of the literature. Cases were classified as proven/probable IA or no infection, according to standard international criteria. Clinical report forms were obtained for 90 patients, of whom 27 had proven/probable IA. An additional 45 cases were identified from literature review for a total of 72 cases of proven/probable IA. Hematopoietic cell and solid-organ transplant recipients accounted for 47% and 33% cases, respectively. Only 8% patients were neutropenic at time of diagnosis. Ongoing antimold prophylaxis was present in 47% of cases. Pulmonary IA represented 67% of cases. Primary or secondary extrapulmonary sites of infection were observed in 46% of cases, with skin being affected in 28% of cases. Multiple antifungal drugs were used (consecutively or in combination) in 67% of cases. The 24-week mortality rate was 58%. A. calidoustus was the most frequent causal agent. Minimal inhibitory concentrations encompassing 90% isolates (MIC90) were 1, 8, &gt;16, and 4 ┬Ág/mL for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole, respectively. Aspergillus ustus IA mainly occurred in nonneutropenic transplant patients and was frequently associated with extrapulmonary sites of infection. Mortality rate was high and optimal antifungal therapy remains to be defined
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