14,974 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Aquatic exercise for people with asthma: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Aquatic exercises are among the types of exercise most tolerated by people with asthma. Therefore, the objective of this study was to synthesize the evidence on the effects of aquatic exercise on lung function and quality of life in asthmatic patients. A systematic search encompassing the Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, AMED, SPORTDiscus, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of aquatic exercise in comparison to control conditions or land-based exercise on lung function and quality of life in individuals diagnosed with asthma. The stages of selection, data extraction and methodological evaluation, and level of evidence of the manuscripts were carried out independently by two authors. Ten studies, comprising a total of 393 participants, were incorporated into this systematic review. Very low-quality evidence was found in favor of aquatic exercise in asthmatic patients for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (MD: 0.20 L, 95% CI: 0.02 L–0.38L N: 91) and for forced vital capacity (MD: 0.32 L, 95% CI: 0.08 L–0.56L N: 80). No effect of aquatic exercise was observed on the FEV1/FVC ratio (MD:1.11L, 95% CI: −1.28 L–3.49L N:80) compared with control. Only one study evaluated the effect of aquatic exercise on patients’ quality of life. Improvements in lung function and quality of life in asthmatic patients undergoing aquatic exercise are not supported by high-quality evidence. The present findings will need to be confirmed by new, methodologically more rigorous clinical trials. The effect of aquatic exercise on pulmonary function and quality of life in asthma patients is still uncertain.The current quality of evidence for aquatic exercise in asthma patients is low.There is an urgent need for higher-quality studies investigating the effects of aquatic exercise among asthma patients. The effect of aquatic exercise on pulmonary function and quality of life in asthma patients is still uncertain. The current quality of evidence for aquatic exercise in asthma patients is low. There is an urgent need for higher-quality studies investigating the effects of aquatic exercise among asthma patients.</p