241 research outputs found

    A national population-based study of cannabis use and correlates among U.S. veterans prescribed opioids in primary care

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    BACKGROUND: Cannabis is marketed as a treatment for pain. There is limited data on the prevalence of cannabis use and its correlates among Veterans prescribed opioids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of cannabis use among Veterans prescribed opioids. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans with a urine drug test (UDT) from Primary Care 2014-2018, in 50 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. A total of 1,182,779 patients were identified with an opioid prescription within 90 days prior to UDT. MAIN MEASURES: Annual prevalence of cannabis positive UDT by state. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations of demographic factors, mental health conditions, substance use disorders, and pain diagnoses with cannabis positive UDT. RESULTS: Annual prevalence of cannabis positive UDT ranged from 8.5% to 9.7% during the study period, and in 2018 was 18.15% in Washington, D.C. and 10 states with legalized medical and recreational cannabis, 6.1% in Puerto Rico and 25 states with legalized medical cannabis, and 4.5% in non-legal states. Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, and marginal housing were associated with use (p \u3c 0.001). Post-traumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.22, p \u3c 0.001), opioid use disorder (AOR 1.14; CI 1.07-1.22, p \u3c 0.001), alcohol use disorder or positive AUDIT-C (AOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.28-1.39, p \u3c 0.001), smoking (AOR 2.58; 95% CI 2.49-2.66, p \u3c 0.001), and other drug use disorders (AOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.02) were associated with cannabis use. Positive UDT for amphetamines AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.26-1.58, p \u3c 0.001), benzodiazepines (AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.31-1.51, p \u3c 0.001) and cocaine (AOR 2.04; 95% CI 1.75-2.36, p \u3c 0.001) were associated with cannabis positive UDT. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use among Veterans prescribed opioids varied by state and by legalization status. Veterans with PTSD and substance use disorders were more likely to have cannabis positive UDT. Opioid-prescribed Veterans using cannabis may benefit from screening for these conditions, referral to treatment, and attention to opioid safety

    A national population-based study of cannabis use and correlates among U.S. veterans prescribed opioids in primary care.

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    Cannabis is marketed as a treatment for pain. There is limited data on the prevalence of cannabis use and its correlates among Veterans prescribed opioids. To examine the prevalence and correlates of cannabis use among Veterans prescribed opioids. Cross-sectional study. Veterans with a urine drug test (UDT) from Primary Care 2014-2018, in 50 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. A total of 1,182,779 patients were identified with an opioid prescription within 90 days prior to UDT. Annual prevalence of cannabis positive UDT by state. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations of demographic factors, mental health conditions, substance use disorders, and pain diagnoses with cannabis positive UDT. Annual prevalence of cannabis positive UDT ranged from 8.5% to 9.7% during the study period, and in 2018 was 18.15% in Washington, D.C. and 10 states with legalized medical and recreational cannabis, 6.1% in Puerto Rico and 25 states with legalized medical cannabis, and 4.5% in non-legal states. Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, and marginal housing were associated with use (p < 0.001). Post-traumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.22, p < 0.001), opioid use disorder (AOR 1.14; CI 1.07-1.22, p < 0.001), alcohol use disorder or positive AUDIT-C (AOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.28-1.39, p < 0.001), smoking (AOR 2.58; 95% CI 2.49-2.66, p < 0.001), and other drug use disorders (AOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.02) were associated with cannabis use. Positive UDT for amphetamines AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.26-1.58, p < 0.001), benzodiazepines (AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.31-1.51, p < 0.001) and cocaine (AOR 2.04; 95% CI 1.75-2.36, p < 0.001) were associated with cannabis positive UDT. Cannabis use among Veterans prescribed opioids varied by state and by legalization status. Veterans with PTSD and substance use disorders were more likely to have cannabis positive UDT. Opioid-prescribed Veterans using cannabis may benefit from screening for these conditions, referral to treatment, and attention to opioid safety

    Partridge and embryonated partridge egg as new preclinical models for candidiasis

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    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most common cause of candidiasis in humans and animals. This study was established to a new experimental infection model for systemic candidiasis using partridge and embryonated partridge egg. First, we tested the induction of systemic candidiasis in partridge and embryonated partridge egg. Finally, interaction between virulence factors of C. albicans and Bcl-2 family members was predicted. We observed that embryonic infection causes a decrease in survival time and at later embryonic days (11�12th), embryos showed lesions. Morphometric analysis of the extra-embryonic membrane (EEM) vasculature showed that vascular apoptotic effect of C. albicans was revealed by a significant reduction in capillary area. In immunohistochemistry assay, low expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax confirmed apoptosis. The gene expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was also altered in fungi-exposed EEM. Ourin silico simulation has shown an accurate interaction between aspartic proteinase, polyamine oxidase, Bcl-2 and BAX. We observed that the disease was associated with adverse consequences, which were similar to human candidiasis. Acquired results support the idea that partridge and embryonated partridge egg can be utilized as appropriate preclinical models to investigate the pathological effects of candidiasis. © 2021, The Author(s)

    Medical Reasons for Marijuana Use, Forms of Use, and Patient Perception of Physician Attitudes Among the US Population

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    BackgroundThe use of marijuana for medical purposes is increasing in parallel with expanding legalization and decreased public perception of harm. Despite this increase in use, it is unclear which medical conditions patients are attempting to treat with marijuana and whether they are communicating with medical providers about their use.ObjectiveTo understand the medical reasons for marijuana use, forms of marijuana used for medical purposes, and disclosure of use to physicians.DesignNational, probability-based online survey.SettingThe USA, 2017.Participants16,280 US adults.Main measureProportion of US adults who agreed with a statement.Key resultsA total of 9003 participants completed the survey (55% response rate). Five hundred ninety-one (7% of US adults) reported using marijuana for medical purposes. The most common medical reasons for marijuana use were anxiety (49%), insomnia (47%), chronic pain (42%), and depression (39%). The most common forms of use for all medical conditions were smoking and edibles, followed by vaping, concentrate, and topical. We found women were more likely to use marijuana for posttraumatic stress disorder, sleep, anxiety, and migraines. We did not find substantial variation in medical reasons for marijuana use by race. Among those using marijuana for medical purposes, 21% did not have a doctor. Among those with doctors, 33% did not inform them, 28% reported their doctor was neutral on their use, 32% reported their doctor was supportive, and 8% reported their doctor was not supportive. Those who lived in states where medical marijuana was illegal were less likely to disclose use to their doctor.LimitationThe online format of the survey may have caused selection bias. Wording of the questions may have affected interpretation. Doctors were not queried directly, rather participants were asked about their perception of doctor attitudes.ConclusionAmericans are using marijuana to treat medical conditions despite lack of evidence of efficacy

    Sources of Information and Beliefs About the Health Effects of Marijuana.

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    BackgroundMarijuana is currently legal for recreational use in 10 states and Washington DC while a total of 34 states have implemented varying degrees of medical marijuana. The commercialization of marijuana has been accompanied by a proliferation of false claims regarding the therapeutic potential of marijuana, which are popularized by several different information sources. To date, no study has examined where US adults get their information regarding marijuana.ObjectiveTo determine the sources of information associated with believing unsupported claims about marijuana.DesignProbability-based online survey PARTICIPANTS: 16,820 adults, with a response rate of about 55% (N = 9003) MAIN MEASURES: Most influential sources of information about marijuana and belief of statements consistent with misinformation, for example, smoking marijuana has preventative health benefits, secondhand marijuana smoke or use during pregnancy is completely or somewhat safe, and marijuana is not at all addictive.Key resultsThere were 9003 respondents (response rate 55%). Forty-three percent believed unsupported claims about marijuana. The most influential sources of information were health professionals, traditional media, friends/relatives, and social media/internet. Individuals reporting social media or the Internet (1.46 CI [1.30, 1.64]), the marijuana industry (e.g., advertisements, dispensaries) (2.88 CI [2.15, 3.88]), and friends or relatives (1.41 CI[1.26, 1.58]) as the most influential source of information about marijuana were more likely to believe any statement consistent with misinformation about marijuana in comparison with those who reported other sources as most influential.ConclusionsIndividuals reporting the most significant source of information regarding marijuana was from social media or the Internet, the marijuana industry, or friends or relatives were more likely to believe unsupported claims about marijuana. Public health campaigns to counter the misinformation about marijuana to the public are needed

    Trends in Low-Value Carotid Imaging in the Veterans Health Administration From 2007 to 2016

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    Importance: As part of the Choosing Wisely campaign, primary care, surgery, and neurology societies have identified carotid imaging ordered for screening, preoperative evaluation, and syncope as frequently low value. Objective: To determine the changes in overall and indication-specific rates of carotid imaging following Choosing Wisely recommendations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study compared annual rates of carotid imaging before Choosing Wisely recommendations (ie, 2007 to 2012) and after (ie, 2013 to 2016) among adults receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) national health system. Data analysis was performed from April 10, 2019, to November 27, 2019. Exposures: Release of the Choosing Wisely recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual rates of overall imaging, imaging ordered for stroke workup, imaging ordered for low-value indications (ie, screening owing to carotid bruit, preoperative evaluation, and syncope). Indications were identified using a text lexicon algorithm based on electronic health record review of a stratified random sample of 1000 free-text imaging orders. The subsequent performance of carotid procedures within 6 months after carotid imaging was assessed. Results: Between 2007 and 2016, 809 071 carotid imaging examinations were identified (mean [SD] age of patients undergoing imaging, 69 [10] years; 776 632 [96%] men), of which 201 467 images (24.9%) were ordered for low-value indications (67 064 [8.2%] for carotid bruit, 25 032 [3.1%] for preoperative evaluation, and 109 400 [13.5%] for syncope), 257 369 (31.8%) for stroke workup, and 350 235 (43.3%) for other indications. Imaging for carotid bruits declined across the study period while there was no significant change in imaging for syncope or preoperative evaluation. Compared with the 6 years before, during the 4 years following Choosing Wisely recommendations, there was no change in the trend for syncope, a small decline in preoperative imaging (post-Choosing Wisely trend, -0.1 [95% CI, -0.1 to <-0.1] images per 10 000 veterans), and a continued but less steep decline in imaging for carotid bruits (post-Choosing Wisely trend, -0.3 [95% CI, -0.3 to -0.2] images per 10 000 veterans). During the study period, 17 689 carotid procedures were identified, of which 3232 (18.3%) were preceded by carotid imaging ordered for low-value indications. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that Choosing Wisely recommendations were not associated with a meaningful change in low-value carotid imaging in a national integrated health system. To reduce low-value testing and utilization cascades, interventions targeting ordering clinicians are needed to augment the impact of public awareness campaigns

    The potential role of nicotinamide on Leishmania tropica: An assessment of inhibitory effect, cytokines gene expression and arginase profiling

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    Leishmaniasis represents a major health concern worldwide which has no effective treatment modality. Nicotinamide (NAm) has been used for a wide range of applications from anticancer to antimicrobial usage. This study aimed to assess the effect of NAm combination on Leishmania tropica Inhibition, as well as on cytokines gene expression and arginase (ARG) activity in L. tropica-infected macrophages in an in vitro model. The leishmanicidal effects of NAm and Glucantime (meglumine antimoniate, MA) alone and in combination (NAm/MA) were evaluated using a colorimetric assay and macrophage model. Additionally, immunomodulatory effects and enzymatic activity were assessed by analyzing Th1 and Th2 cytokines gene expression and ARG level, respectively, in infected macrophages treated with NAm and MA, alone and in combination. Findings indicated that the NAm/MA combination demonstrated greater inhibitory effects on L. tropica promastigotes and amastigotes compared with each drug individually. Docking results proved the affinity of NAm to IFN-γ, which can affirm the increased levels of IFN-γ, IL-12p40 and TNF-α as well as reductions in IL-10 secretion with a dose-response effect, especially in the combination group. The NAm/MA combination also showed a significant reduction in the level of ARG activity at all concentrations used compared to each drug individually. These findings indicate higher effectiveness of NAm plus MA in reducing parasite growth, promoting immune response and inhibiting ARG level. This combination should be considered as a potential therapeutic regimen for treatment of volunteer patients with anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in future control programs. © 2020 Elsevier B.V

    Differences in Opinions About Marijuana Use and Prevalence of Use by State Legalization Status.

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    ObjectiveBeliefs about marijuana use and prevalence of use may be associated with the legalization status of the state of residence. We examined differences in views and rates of use of marijuana among residents in recreationally legal, medically legal, and nonlegal states.MethodsWe surveyed a nationally representative online panel of US adults (N = 16,280) and stratified results by marijuana legalization status of states. We compared views of residents of recreational states on benefits and risks of marijuana use to residents in other states.ResultsThe response rate was 56.3% (n = 9003). Residents in recreationally legal states were more likely to believe marijuana could be beneficial for pain management (73% in recreationally legal states, 67% in medically legal states, 63% in nonlegal states; P value: &lt;0.0001), provide relief from stress, anxiety or depression (52% in recreationally legal states, 47% in medically legal states, 46% in nonlegal states; P value: 0.01), and improve appetite (39% in recreationally legal states, 36% in medically legal states, 33% in nonlegal states; P value: &lt;0.009). In addition, residents in recreational states were significantly more likely to believe that smoking 1 marijuana joint a day is somewhat or much safer than smoking 1 cigarette a day (40.8% in recreationally legal states, 39.1% in medically legal states, and 36.1% in nonlegal states; P value: &lt;0.0001). Residents of recreationally and medically legal states were more likely to believe second-hand marijuana smoke was somewhat or much safer than second-hand tobacco smoke (38.3% in recreationally legal states, 38.3% in medically legal states, and 35.7% in nonlegal states; P value: 0.003). Past-year marijuana use in any form (20% in recreational, 14.1% in medical, 12% in nonlegal) and past-year marijuana use of multiple forms (11.1% in recreational, 6.1% in medical, 4.9% in nonlegal) were highest among residents of recreationally legal states. Overall, prevalence of past-year use of any form of marijuana use was more common among residents of recreationally legal states compared with other states (20.3%, confidence interval [CI] 19.5, 21.1 in recreationally legal states; 15.4%, CI 14.7, 16.2 in medically legal states; 11.9%, CI 11.2, 12.6 in nonlegal states).ConclusionsResidents in recreationally legal states were most likely to believe marijuana has benefits, marijuana smoke is safer than tobacco smoke, and have the highest rate of marijuana use. This is cause for concern, given the tide of commercialization, growing number of high-potency cannabis products, and favorable media coverage promoting use for health problems
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