65 research outputs found

    Total zinc intake may modify the glucose-raising effect of a zinc transporter (SLC30A8) variant: a 14-cohort meta-analysis.

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    OBJECTIVE: Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ő≤-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS: We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (ő≤-coefficient ¬Ī SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: -0.0012 ¬Ī 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (ő≤-coefficient ¬Ī SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: -0.0017 ¬Ī 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels

    No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels.

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    Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) √ó BMI and SNP √ó physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (ő≤ = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 √ó 10(-6)). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (ő≤ = 0.06-0.12 mmol/allele, P ‚ȧ 1.53 √ó 10(-7)), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ‚Č• 0.04). In this large study of gene-lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions

    Association of a 62 Variants Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score With Markers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Transethnic, Multicenter Study

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    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease share risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) predicts events in those with and without diabetes mellitus. T2D genetic risk may predict both T2D and SCA. We hypothesized that greater T2D genetic risk is associated with higher extent of SCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional analysis, including 649210 European Americans, 3773 African Americans, 1446 Hispanic Americans, and 773 Chinese Americans without known cardiovascular disease and enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy studies, we tested a 62 T2D-loci genetic risk score for association with measures of SCA, including coronary artery or abdominal aortic calcium score, common and internal carotid artery intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. We used ancestry-stratified linear regression models, with random effects accounting for family relatedness when appropriate, applying a genetic-only (adjusted for sex) and a full SCA risk factors-adjusted model (significance, P<0.01=0.05/5, number of traits analyzed). An inverse association with coronary artery calcium score in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Europeans (fully-adjusted P=0.004) and with common carotid artery intima-media thickness in the Framingham Heart Study (P=0.009) was not confirmed in other study cohorts, either separately or in meta-analysis. Secondary analyses showed no consistent associations with \u3b2-cell and insulin resistance genetic risk sub-scores in the Framingham Heart Study and in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. CONCLUSIONS: SCA does not have a major genetic component linked to a burden of 62 T2D loci identified by large genome-wide association studies. A shared T2D-SCA genetic basis, if any, might become apparent from better functional information about both T2D and cardiovascular disease risk loci

    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

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    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms
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