871 research outputs found

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Rare predicted loss-of-function variants of type I IFN immunity genes are associated with life-threatening COVID-19

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    BackgroundWe previously reported that impaired type I IFN activity, due to inborn errors of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity or to autoantibodies against type I IFN, account for 15-20% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients. Therefore, the determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 remain to be identified in similar to 80% of cases.MethodsWe report here a genome-wide rare variant burden association analysis in 3269 unvaccinated patients with life-threatening COVID-19, and 1373 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals without pneumonia. Among the 928 patients tested for autoantibodies against type I IFN, a quarter (234) were positive and were excluded.ResultsNo gene reached genome-wide significance. Under a recessive model, the most significant gene with at-risk variants was TLR7, with an OR of 27.68 (95%CI 1.5-528.7, P=1.1x10(-4)) for biochemically loss-of-function (bLOF) variants. We replicated the enrichment in rare predicted LOF (pLOF) variants at 13 influenza susceptibility loci involved in TLR3-dependent type I IFN immunity (OR=3.70[95%CI 1.3-8.2], P=2.1x10(-4)). This enrichment was further strengthened by (1) adding the recently reported TYK2 and TLR7 COVID-19 loci, particularly under a recessive model (OR=19.65[95%CI 2.1-2635.4], P=3.4x10(-3)), and (2) considering as pLOF branchpoint variants with potentially strong impacts on splicing among the 15 loci (OR=4.40[9%CI 2.3-8.4], P=7.7x10(-8)). Finally, the patients with pLOF/bLOF variants at these 15 loci were significantly younger (mean age [SD]=43.3 [20.3] years) than the other patients (56.0 [17.3] years; P=1.68x10(-5)).ConclusionsRare variants of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I IFN immunity genes can underlie life-threatening COVID-19, particularly with recessive inheritance, in patients under 60 years old

    Some fast algorithms multiplying a matrix by its adjoint

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    International audienceWe present a non-commutative algorithm for the multiplication of a 2 √ó 2 block-matrix by its adjoint, defined by a matrix ring anti-homomorphism. This algorithm uses 5 block products (3 recursive calls and 2 general products)over C or in positive characteristic. The resulting algorithm for arbitrary dimensions is a reduction of multiplication of a matrix by its adjoint to general matrix product, improving by a constant factor previously known reductions. We prove also that there is no algorithm derived from bilinear forms using only four products and the adjoint of one of them. Second we give novel dedicated algorithms for the complex field and the quaternions to alternatively compute the multiplication taking advantage of the structure of the matrix-polynomial arithmetic involved. We then analyze the respective ranges of predominance of the two strategies. Finally we propose schedules with low memory footprint that support a fast and memory efficient practical implementation over a prime field

    Changes in Relative Work of the Lower Extremity and Distal Foot Joints After Total Ankle Replacement: An Exploratory Study

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    Ankle osteoarthritis does not only led to lower ankle power generation, but also results in compensatory gait mechanics at the hip and Chopart joints. Much of previous work explored the relative work distribution after total ankle replacement (TAR) either across the lower extremity joints where the foot was modelled as a single rigid unit or across the intrinsic foot joints without considering the more proximal lower limb joints. Therefore, this study aims, for the first time, to combine 3D kinetic lower limb and foot models together to assess changes in the relative joint work distribution across the foot and lower limb joints during level walking before and after patients undergo TAR. We included both patients and healthy control subjects. All patients underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis before and after surgery. Kinetic lower limb and multi-segment foot models were used to quantify all inter-segmental joint works and their relative contributions to the total lower limb work. Patients demonstrated a significant increase in the relative ankle positive joint work contribution and a significant decrease in the relative Chopart positive joint work contribution after TAR. Furthermore, there exists a large effect toward decreases in the relative contribution of the hip negative joint work after TAR. In conclusion, this study seems to corroborate the theoretical rationale that TAR reduces the compensatory strategy in the Chopart and hip joints in patients suffering from end-stage ankle osteoarthritis

    Nutritional safety and suitability of a specific protein hydrolysate derived from a whey protein concentrate and used in an infant formula and follow-on formula manufactured from hydrolysed protein by FrieslandCampina Nederland BV

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    The European Commission asked EFSA to deliver an opinion on the nutritional safety and suitability of a specific protein hydrolysate. It is derived from a whey protein concentrate and used in an infant and follow-on formula manufactured by FrieslandCampina Nederland B.V., which submitted a dossier to the European Commission to request an amendment of Regulation (EU) 2016/127 with respect to the protein sources that may be used in the manufacture of infant and/or follow-on formula. The protein hydrolysate under evaluation is sufficiently characterised with respect to the fraction of the hydrolysed protein. In the pertinent intervention study provided, an infant formula manufactured from the protein hydrolysate with a protein content of 2.4 g/100 kcal and consumed as the sole source of nutrition by infants for 3 months led to a growth equivalent to a formula manufactured from intact cow's milk protein with a protein content of 2.1 g/100 kcal. Data on gastrointestinal tolerance of the formula did not raise any concerns. No experimental data have been provided on the nutritional safety and suitability of this protein source in follow-on formula. Given that it is consumed with complementary foods and the protein source is nutritionally safe and suitable in an infant formula that is the sole source of nutrition of infants, the Panel considers that the protein hydrolysate is also a nutritionally safe and suitable protein source for use in follow-on formula. The Panel concludes that the protein hydrolysate under evaluation is a nutritionally safe and suitable protein source for use in infant and follow-on formula, as long as the formula in which it is used contains a minimum of 2.4 g/100 kcal protein and complies with the compositional criteria of Regulation (EU) 2016/127 and the amino acid pattern in its Annex IIIA

    Nutritional safety and suitability of a specific protein hydrolysate derived from a whey protein concentrate and used in an infant formula and follow‚Äźon formula manufactured from hydrolysed protein by FrieslandCampina Nederland B.V.

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    Abstract The European Commission asked EFSA to deliver an opinion on the nutritional safety and suitability of a specific protein hydrolysate. It is derived from a whey protein concentrate and used in an infant and follow‚Äźon formula manufactured by FrieslandCampina Nederland B.V., which submitted a dossier to the European Commission to request an amendment of Regulation (EU) 2016/127 with respect to the protein sources that may be used in the manufacture of infant and/or follow‚Äźon formula. The protein hydrolysate under evaluation is sufficiently characterised with respect to the fraction of the hydrolysed protein. In the pertinent intervention study provided, an infant formula manufactured from the protein hydrolysate with a protein content of 2.4‚ÄČg/100‚ÄČkcal and consumed as the sole source of nutrition by infants for 3 months led to a growth equivalent to a formula manufactured from intact cow's milk protein with a protein content of 2.1‚ÄČg/100‚ÄČkcal. Data on gastrointestinal tolerance of the formula did not raise any concerns. No experimental data have been provided on the nutritional safety and suitability of this protein source in follow‚Äźon formula. Given that it is consumed with complementary foods and the protein source is nutritionally safe and suitable in an infant formula that is the sole source of nutrition of infants, the Panel considers that the protein hydrolysate is also a nutritionally safe and suitable protein source for use in follow‚Äźon formula. The Panel concludes that the protein hydrolysate under evaluation is a nutritionally safe and suitable protein source for use in infant and follow‚Äźon formula, as long as the formula in which it is used contains a minimum of 2.4‚ÄČg/100‚ÄČkcal protein and complies with the compositional criteria of Regulation (EU) 2016/127 and the amino acid pattern in its Annex IIIA

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    How high frequency atmospheric forcing impacts mesoscale eddy surface signature and vertical structure

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    Seasonal evolution of both surface signature and subsurface structure of a Mediterranean mesoscale anticyclones is assessed using the CROCO high-resolution numerical model with realistic background stratification and fluxes. In good agreement with remote-sensing and in-situ observations, our numerical simulations capture the seasonal cycle of the anomalies, induced by the anticyclone, both in the sea surface temperature (SST) and the mixed layer depth (MLD). The eddy signature on the SST shifts from warm-core in winter to cold-core in summer, while the MLD deepens significantly in the core of the anticyclone in late winter. Our sensitivity analysis shows that these dynamical properties can be accurately reproduced only if the resolution is high enough (~1km for the horizontal with 100 vertical levels in a Mediterranean stratification) and if the atmospheric forcing contains high-frequency. In this configuration the deformation radius is explicitly resolved and the vertical mixing parametrized by the k-őĶ closure scheme is three times higher inside the eddy than outside the eddy. This differential mixing is explained by near-inertial waves, triggered by the high-frequency atmospheric forcing.Near-inertial waves propagate more energy inside the eddy because of the lower effective Coriolis parameter in the anticyclonic core. In addition to these high spatial and temporal resolution, SST retroaction on air-sea fluxes appears to be necessary to obtain marked eddy mixed layer depth anomaly
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