28 research outputs found

    Evaluation of Viremia Frequencies of a Novel Human Pegivirus by Using Bioinformatic Screening and PCR

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    Next-generation sequencing has critical applications in virus discovery, diagnostics, and environmental surveillance. We used metagenomic sequence libraries for retrospective screening of plasma samples for the recently discovered human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1). From a cohort of 150 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive case-patients, we identified 2 persons with HHpgV-1 viremia and a high frequency of human pegivirus (HPgV) viremia (14%). Detection of HHpgV-1 and HPgV was concordant with parallel PCR-based screening using conserved primers matching groups 1 (HPgV) and 2 (HHPgV-1) nonstructural 3 region sequences. PCR identified 1 HHPgV-1-positive person with viremia from a group of 195 persons with hemophilia who had been exposed to nonvirally inactivated factor VII/IX; 18 (9%) were HPgV-positive. Relative to HCV and HPgV, active infections with HHpgV-1 were infrequently detected in blood, even in groups that had substantial parenteral exposure. Our findings are consistent with lower transmissibility or higher rates of virus clearance for HHpgV-1 than for other bloodborne human flaviviruses

    A randomized comparison of bypassing agents in hemophilia complicated by an inhibitor.

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    The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII is a serious complication of hemophilia. FEIBA (factor VIII inhibitor-bypassing activity), an activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC), and NovoSeven, recombinant factor Vila (rFVIIa), are used as hemostatic bypassing agents in treating patients with inhibitors. The FENOC study was designed to test equivalence of the products in the treatment of ankle, knee, and elbow joint bleeding. A prospective, open-label, randomized, crossover, equivalency design was used. The parameters of interest were the percentage of patients who reported efficacy in response to FEIBA and the percentage that reported efficacy in response to NovoSeven. A difference in these percentages of no more than 15% was determined to be a clinically acceptable magnitude for equivalence of the 2 products. The primary outcome was evaluation 6 hours after treatment. Data for 96 bleeding episodes contributed by 48 participants were analyzed. The criterion for declaring the 2 products equivalent at 6 hours was not met; however, the confidence interval of the difference in percentages of efficacy reported for each product only slightly exceeded the 15% boundary (-11.4%-15.7%), P=.059. FEIBA and NovoSeven appear to exhibit a similar effect on joint bleeds, although the efficacy between products is rated differently by a substantial proportion of patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00166309

    Joint comorbidities among Swedish carriers of haemophilia : A register-based cohort study over 22 years

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    Background: A significant fraction of women with an impaired factor VIII or IX gene in the X chromosome, carriers of haemophilia, will have clotting factor activities corresponding to those seen in males with non-severe haemophilia, hence, experience an increased bleeding tendency. Data describing the long-term joint outcomes among carriers are limited. We compared the age at onset, frequency of joint-related diagnoses as well as joint surgery and related hospitalizations among carriers of haemophilia with sex- and birthdate-matched controls from the general population. Methods: Carriers of haemophilia born 1941-2008 were identified through the haemophilia treatment centres' (HTCs) databases and the National Patient Register of Sweden. For each carrier, we included up to five individuals using the Swedish population register as comparisons. Data for the period 1987-2008 were obtained. Results: Among 539 potential carriers identified, 213 had a known factor activity. Carriers with reduced factor activity and those with unknown factor activity had received their first joint-related diagnosis at a significantly earlier age than their comparisons. The same subgroups showed an overall 2.3- and 2.4-fold higher hazard for joint-related diagnoses compared with the general population. In addition, the hazards of joint-related outpatient hospitalization were 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 9.1) and 2.5-fold (95% CI: 1.6, 3.7). This was not observed for those with normal factor activity. Conclusion: Carriers of haemophilia suffer a significant risk for joint comorbidities. This risk seems to correlate to the factor activity. Our findings underline the importance of regular clinical follow-up of carriers at HTCs

    Delays in maturation among adolescents with hemophilia and a history of inhibitors

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    Inhibitory antibodies to factors VIII or IX have the potential to affect a broad range of outcomes among people with hemophilia; however, their possible effect on growth and maturation has not been explored. We evaluated skeletal maturation (bone age), pubertal progression, serum testosterone levels, height velocity, and stature in the multicenter Hemophilia Growth and Development Study. A total of 333 children and adolescents (mean age, 12.4 years) were enrolled from 1989 to 1990 and followed for 7 years. Of these, 18% (n = 60) had a history of inhibitors. Bone age among HIV‚ąí adolescents with a history of inhibitors lagged 9 or more months behind those without inhibitors at every age from 12 to 15 years. Those with a history of inhibitors were older at every Tanner stage transition, attained a lower maximum growth velocity, and their serum testosterone levels were significantly lower compared with those without inhibitors. Delays were greater among HIV+ patients with a history of inhibitors compared with those without inhibitors; however, the differences were generally small and not statistically significant. The results of this investigation underscore the importance of monitoring the growth and maturation of children and adolescents with hemophilia, particularly those with inhibitors

    The importance of genetic factors for the development of arthropathy: a longitudinal study of children and adolescents with haemophilia A

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    Haemophilia A is a congenital bleeding disorder characterised by recurrent haemorrhages into the major joints. Haemophilic arthropathy is a well-established outcome of recurrent joint bleeding; however, it is clear that multiple factors determine the extent and severity of its occurrence. We sought to identify genetic factors related to abnormalities in range of motion (ROM) in the knees, ankles and elbows in a cohort of children and adolescents with haemophilia A not treated primarily with regular prophylaxis. Using data from the Haemophilia Growth and Development Study, we examined associations between 13,342 genetic markers and ROM scores measured at six-month intervals for up to seven years. As a first step, ordered logistic regression models were fit for each joint separately. A subset of SNP markers showing significant effects (p < 0.01) on the right and left sides for at least two joints were included in a full model fit using a multivariate generalised linear mixed model assuming an ordinal response. The models contained all ROM scores obtained at all visits. Twenty-five markers analysed in the full model showed either increased or decreased risk of ROM abnormalities at the p<0.001 level. Several genes identified at either the first or second stage of the analysis have been associated with arthritis in a variety of large studies. Our results support the likelihood that risk for haemophilic arthropathy is associated with genetic factors, the identification of which holds promise for further advancing the individualisation of treatment

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the IL10 Region Associated with HCV Clearance

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    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an infectious blood-borne pathogen that usually persists as a chronic infection. However, approximately 15% of the time, patients can clear the virus, indicating that host differences could be critical in determining the course of HCV infection. The inflammatory response is crucial to resolving or failing to resolve an acute HCV infection. Some previous reports have implicated interleukin 10 (IL10) polymorphisms with successful anti-HCV therapy and natural viral clearance. We tested 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL10 region (+/-300 kb and 24 within the IL10 gene itself), which contains 13 genes including the IL10 immunomodulatory paralogs IL19, IL20, and IL24, for association with HCV clearance vs persistence. SNPs from two haplotype block regions, one at IL10 and the other from IL19/IL20, were associated with HCV clearance in African Americans (91 clearance cases and 183 chronically infected matched controls; P=0.05-0.002) while with expectation-maximization algorithm-reconstructed haplotypes, these associations remained (P=0.05-0.002). However, no significant associations were detected in European Americans (108 clearance and 245 chronic). Our results indicate that variants of the immunomodulatory IL10 and IL19/IL20 genes may be involved in natural clearance of HCV in the African-American population