4,289 research outputs found

    Mergers and acquisitions in TV production, aggregation and distribution: challenges for competition, industrial and media policy

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    This paper focuses on the recent wave of M&A activity, both vertical and horizontal in TV production, aggregation and distribution industries, and discusses the implications of M&A activity for competition, industrial and media policymaking. Moreover, it aspires to set a forward-looking perspective on the regulation of M&A in the TV industry. It is argued that while EU competition policy has difficulties to fully grasp anti-competitive effects resulting from vertical M&A activity in particular, industrial and media-specific policies dealing with the creation of an economically and culturally sustainable, European broadcasting and distribution sector are virtually absent from national and European policy agendas. It is particular in the latter two domains of policymaking that policy action is necessary

    tt-Covering Arrays Generated by a Tiling Probability Model

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    A t-\a covering array is an m×nm\times n matrix, with entries from an alphabet of size α\alpha, such that for any choice of tt rows, and any ordered string of tt letters of the alphabet, there exists a column such that the "values" of the rows in that column match those of the string of letters. We use the Lov\'asz Local Lemma in conjunction with a new tiling-based probability model to improve the upper bound on the smallest number of columns N=N(m,t,α)N=N(m,t,\alpha) of a t-\a covering array.Comment: 7 page

    Cultural rights in the case-law of the International Court of Justice (ICJ)

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    One of the most remarkable developments of the new millennium has been the expansion of debates on culture at the highest levels of the international community’s decision-making processes. This development has necessarily had an impact on cultural rights empowerment, including enhancing their justiciability. Substantial progress has been made both at a regional and international level. Yet, not all thresholds have been reached. The International Court of Justice (‘ICJ’) has never explicitly addressed cultural rights in its case-law. Despite its ‘multicultural’ composition, it is only with great difficulty that the Court examines questions related to culture. However, a thorough examination of the jurisprudence of the ICJ reveals that opportunities to take cultural rights seriously have arisen more than once. Recent judgments of the Court reveal the emergence of a certain trend calling for a ‘culturally sensitive’ understanding of legal issues brought to the Hague. The present paper submits that this trend is beneficial not only for the protection of cultural rights, but also for the maintenance of human and cultural diversity, as well as for the survival and livelihood of indigenous peoples. In light of the urgent worldwide need for peace, addressing culture as a legal issue before the ICJ, in accordance with articles 36 and 60 of its statute, may be a fruitful pathway for the Court to follow in order to resolve international disputes

    Understanding consumer needs and preferences in new product development: the case of functional food innovations

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    As the majority of new products fail it is important to focus on the needs and preferences of the consumers in new product development. Consumers are increasingly recognised as important co-developers of innovations, often developing new functions for technologies, solving unforeseen problems and demanding innovative solutions. The central research question of the paper is: How to understand consumer needs and preferences in the context of new product development in order to improve the success of emerging innovations, such as functional foods. Important variables appear to be domestication, trust and distance, intermediate agents, user representations and the consumer- and product specific characteristics. Using survey and focus group data, we find that consumers need and prefer easy-to-use new products, transparent and accessible information supply by the producer, independent control of efficacy and safety, and introduction of a quality symbol for functional foods. Intermediate agents are not important in information diffusion. Producers should concentrate on consumers with specific needs, like athletes, women, obese persons, and stressed people. This will support developing products in line with the needs and mode of living of the users.consumer needs, preferences, new product development, functional foods

    State Aid and Public Service Broadcasting How Future-proof is the Remit of Public Broadcasting Organisations? IES WORKING PAPER 1/2009

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    The European Commission’s interference through state aid rules with the Member States’ support for public service broadcasting is not undisputed. Member States, public broadcasters and numerous academics fear that State aid control might limit the public service remit and, hence, the multi-platform and holistic role of public broadcasters in the converging media industries. This paper assesses to what extent the fear for Commission intervention is, indeed, justified. It starts with the assumption that the transformation from public service broadcasting to public service media is vital for the European democratic society. The paper leads to the observation that, in fact, European State aid policy might contribute to such a necessary and urgent transformation, instead of threatening it. The paper consists of three main parts. Firstly, the legal constraints and margins of the Community’s State aid framework are discussed. Secondly, the application of the rules to a selection of public broadcasting cases is analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from the analysis
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