17 research outputs found

    Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ3 suppresses the bacterial AvrPto1–tomato PTO immune complex via acetylation

    No full text
    The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae secretes multiple effectors that modulate plant defenses. Some effectors trigger defenses due to specific recognition by plant immune complexes, whereas others can suppress the resulting immune responses. The HopZ3 effector of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a (PsyB728a) is an acetyltransferase that modifies not only components of plant immune complexes, but also the Psy effectors that activate these complexes. In Arabidopsis, HopZ3 acetylates the host RPM1 complex and the Psy effectors AvrRpm1 and AvrB3. This study focuses on the role of HopZ3 during tomato infection. In Psy-resistant tomato, the main immune complex includes PRF and PTO, a RIPK-family kinase that recognizes the AvrPto effector. HopZ3 acts as a virulence factor on tomato by suppressing AvrPto1Psy-triggered immunity. HopZ3 acetylates AvrPto1Psy and the host proteins PTO, SlRIPK and SlRIN4s. Biochemical reconstruction and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggest that acetylation acts in multiple ways to suppress immune signaling in tomato. First, acetylation disrupts the critical AvrPto1Psy-PTO interaction needed to initiate the immune response. Unmodified residues at the binding interface of both proteins and at other residues needed for binding are acetylated. Second, acetylation occurs at residues important for AvrPto1Psy function but not for binding to PTO. Finally, acetylation reduces specific phosphorylations needed for promoting the immune-inducing activity of HopZ3's targets such as AvrPto1Psy and PTO. In some cases, acetylation competes with phosphorylation. HopZ3-mediated acetylation suppresses the kinase activity of SlRIPK and the phosphorylation of its SlRIN4 substrate previously implicated in PTO-signaling. Thus, HopZ3 disrupts the functions of multiple immune components and the effectors that trigger them, leading to increased susceptibility to infection. Finally, mass spectrometry used to map specific acetylated residues confirmed HopZ3's unusual capacity to modify histidine in addition to serine, threonine and lysine residues

    Differential Growth of Francisella tularensis, Which Alters Expression of Virulence Factors, Dominant Antigens, and Surface-Carbohydrate Synthases, Governs the Apparent Virulence of Ft SchuS4 to Immunized Animals

    Get PDF
    The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth as (1) more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2) slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB). In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism. Here, we tested the hypotheses that Ft grown in BHI (BHI-Ft) accurately displays a full protein composition more similar to that reported for infection-derived Ft and that this similarity would make BHI-Ft more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity than MHB-Ft. We performed comprehensive proteomic analysis of Ft grown in MHB, BHI, and BHI supplemented with casamino acids (BCA) and compared our findings to published “omics” data derived from Ft grown in vivo. Based on the abundance of ~1,000 proteins, the fingerprint of BHI-Ft is one of nutrient-deprived bacteria that—through induction of a stringent-starvation-like response—have induced the FevR regulon for expression of the bacterium's virulence factors, immuno-dominant antigens, and surface-carbohydrate synthases. To test the notion that increased abundance of dominant antigens expressed by BHI-Ft would render these bacteria more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity, we employed a battery of LVS-vaccination and S4-challenge protocols using MHB- and BHI-grown Ft S4. Contrary to our hypothesis, these experiments reveal that LVS-immunization provides a barrier to infection that is significantly more effective against an MHB-S4 challenge than a BHI-S4 challenge. The differences in apparent virulence to immunized mice are profoundly greater than those observed with primary infection of naïve mice. Our findings suggest that tularemia vaccination studies should be critically evaluated in regard to the growth conditions of the challenge agent

    Differential Growth of Francisella tularensis, Which Alters Expression of Virulence Factors, Dominant Antigens, and Surface-Carbohydrate Synthases, Governs the Apparent Virulence of Ft SchuS4 to Immunized Animals

    Get PDF
    The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth as (1) more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2) slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB). In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism. Here, we tested the hypotheses that Ft grown in BHI (BHI-Ft) accurately displays a full protein composition more similar to that reported for infection-derived Ft and that this similarity would make BHI-Ft more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity than MHB-Ft. We performed comprehensive proteomic analysis of Ft grown in MHB, BHI, and BHI supplemented with casamino acids (BCA) and compared our findings to published “omics” data derived from Ft grown in vivo. Based on the abundance of ~1,000 proteins, the fingerprint of BHI-Ft is one of nutrient-deprived bacteria that—through induction of a stringent-starvation-like response—have induced the FevR regulon for expression of the bacterium's virulence factors, immuno-dominant antigens, and surface-carbohydrate synthases. To test the notion that increased abundance of dominant antigens expressed by BHI-Ft would render these bacteria more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity, we employed a battery of LVS-vaccination and S4-challenge protocols using MHB- and BHI-grown Ft S4. Contrary to our hypothesis, these experiments reveal that LVS-immunization provides a barrier to infection that is significantly more effective against an MHB-S4 challenge than a BHI-S4 challenge. The differences in apparent virulence to immunized mice are profoundly greater than those observed with primary infection of naïve mice. Our findings suggest that tularemia vaccination studies should be critically evaluated in regard to the growth conditions of the challenge agent

    Acetylation of an NB-LRR Plant Immune-Effector Complex Suppresses Immunity

    Get PDF
    Modifications of plant immune complexes by secreted pathogen effectors can trigger strong immune responses mediated by the action of nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat immune receptors. Although some strains of the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae harbor effectors that individually can trigger immunity, the plant’s response may be suppressed by other virulence factors. This work reveals a robust strategy for immune suppression mediated by HopZ3, an effector in the YopJ family of acetyltransferases. The suppressing HopZ3 effector binds to and can acetylate multiple members of the RPM1 immune complex, as well as two P. syringae effectors that together activate the RPM1 complex. These acetylations modify serine, threonine, lysine, and/or histidine residues in the targets. Through HopZ3-mediated acetylation, it is possible that the whole effector-immune complex is inactivated, leading to increased growth of the pathogen

    The dynamic interactome of human Aha1 upon Y223 phosphorylation

    Get PDF
    Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential chaperone that supports the function of a wide range of signaling molecules. Hsp90 binds to a suite of co-chaperone proteins that regulate Hsp90 function through alteration of intrinsic ATPase activity. Several studies have determined Aha1 to be an important co-chaperone whose binding to Hsp90 is modulated by phosphorylation, acetylation and SUMOylation of Hsp90 [1,2]. In this study, we applied quantitative affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) proteomics to understand how phosphorylation of hAha1 at Y223 altered global client/co-chaperone interaction [3]. Specifically, we characterized and compared the interactomes of Aha1–Y223F (phospho-mutant form) and Aha1–Y223E (phospho-mimic form). We identified 99 statistically significant interactors of hAha1, a high proportion of which (84%) demonstrated preferential binding to the phospho-mimic form of hAha1. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository [4] with the dataset identifier PXD001737

    SIRT3 Deacetylates and Activates OPA1 To Regulate Mitochondrial Dynamics during Stress

    Get PDF
    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by the balance between two counteracting mitochondrial processes of fusion and fission. There is significant evidence suggesting a stringent association between morphology and bioenergetics of mitochondria. Morphological alterations in mitochondria are linked to several pathological disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. The consequences of stress-induced acetylation of mitochondrial proteins on the organelle morphology remain largely unexplored. Here we report that OPA1, a mitochondrial fusion protein, was hyperacetylated in hearts under pathological stress and this posttranslational modification reduced the GTPase activity of the protein. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 was capable of deacetylating OPA1 and elevating its GTPase activity. Mass spectrometry and mutagenesis analyses indicated that in SIRT3-deficient cells OPA1 was acetylated at lysine 926 and 931 residues. Overexpression of a deacetylation-mimetic version of OPA1 recovered the mitochondrial functions of OPA1-null cells, thus demonstrating the functional significance of K926/931 acetylation in regulating OPA1 activity. Moreover, SIRT3-dependent activation of OPA1 contributed to the preservation of mitochondrial networking and protection of cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-mediated cell death. In summary, these data indicated that SIRT3 promotes mitochondrial function not only by regulating activity of metabolic enzymes, as previously reported, but also by regulating mitochondrial dynamics by targeting OPA1

    The quantitative changes in the yeast Hsp70 and Hsp90 interactomes upon DNA damage

    Get PDF
    The molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 participate in many important cellular processes, including how cells respond to DNA damage. Here we show the results of applied quantitative affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) proteomics to understand the protein network through which Hsp70 and Hsp90 exert their effects on the DNA damage response (DDR). We characterized the interactomes of the yeast Hsp70 isoform Ssa1 and Hsp90 isoform Hsp82 before and after exposure to methyl methanesulfonate. We identified 256 chaperone interactors, 146 of which are novel. Although the majority of chaperone interaction remained constant under DNA damage, 5 proteins (Coq5, Ast1, Cys3, Ydr210c and Rnr4) increased in interaction with Ssa1 and/or Hsp82. This data presented here are related to [1] (Truman et al., in press). The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaino et al. (2013) [2]) with the dataset identifier PXD001284
    corecore