272 research outputs found

    Pharmacological inhibition of sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 3-mediated sodium absorption in the gut reduces atrial fibrillation susceptibility in obese spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Background: Increased sodium uptake has been shown to contribute to hypertension and cardiac endorgan damage. The sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 3 (NHE3) is an important mediator of intestinal sodium absorption. Whether a reduction in intestinal sodium absorption can prevent the development of an atrial arrhythmogenic substrate in hypertension is unknown. Methods: Eight-week-old obese spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-ob) were treated for six weeks with the gut-specific NHE3-inhibitor SAR (1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-{3-[(4S)-6,8-dichloro-2-methyl-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydroiso-chinolin-4-yl]phenyl}urea, 1 mg/kg/d in chow, SHR-ob SAR, n = 7) and compared to aged-matched placebo-treated SHR-ob (SHR-ob PLAC, n = 8). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at the end of the treatment period to assess atrial emptying function. Afterwards, local conduction disturbances and inducible atrial fibrillation (AF) duration were determined and histological analysis to quantify atrial fibrosis amount were performed. Results: Inhibition of intestinal NHE3 by SAR increased fecal sodium excretion, resulted in marked changes in feces electrolyte concentrations and water content, reduced blood pressure and preserved atrial emptying function (active total percent emptying: SHR-ob SAR: 0.47 +/- 0.05% vs. SHR-ob PLAC: 0.38 +/- 0.007, p <0.0001). Atrial fibrosis content was lower (21.4 +/- 2.5% vs. 36.7 +/- 1.2%, p <0.0001) and areas of slow conduction were smaller (2.5 +/- 0.09% vs. 5.3 +/- 0.2%, p <0.0001) in SHR-ob SAR compared to SHR-ob PLAC. Left atrial burst stimulation resulted in shorter inducible AF-durations in SHR-ob SAR compared to SHR-ob PLAC. Conclusions: Reduction of intestinal sodium absorption and subsequent changes in feces milieu by pharmacological NHE3 inhibition in the gut preserved atrial emptying function and reduced AF susceptibility. Whether pharmacological NHE3 inhibition in the gut prevents AF in humans warrants further study. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V

    Tissue Sodium Content and Arterial Hypertension in Obese Adolescents

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    Early-onset obesity is known to culminate in type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease. The role of sodium (Na+) homeostasis in this process is incompletely understood, yet correlations between Na+ accumulation and hypertension have been observed in adults. We aimed to investigate these associations in adolescents. A cohort of 32 adolescents (13-17 years), comprising 20 obese patients, of whom 11 were hypertensive, as well as 12 age-matched controls, underwent 23Na-MRI of the left lower leg with a standard clinical 3T scanner. Median triceps surae muscle Na+ content in hypertensive obese (11.95 mmol/L [interquartile range 11.62-13.66]) was significantly lower than in normotensive obese (13.63 mmol/L [12.97-17.64]; p = 0.043) or controls (15.37 mmol/L [14.12-16.08]; p = 0.012). No significant differences were found between normotensive obese and controls. Skin Na+ content in hypertensive obese (13.33 mmol/L [11.53-14.22] did not differ to normotensive obese (14.12 mmol/L [13.15-15.83]) or controls (11.48 mmol/L [10.48-12.80]), whereas normotensive obese had higher values compared to controls (p = 0.004). Arterial hypertension in obese adolescents is associated with low muscle Na+ content. These findings suggest an early dysregulation of Na+ homeostasis in cardiometabolic disease. Further research is needed to determine whether this association is causal and how it evolves in the transition to adulthood

    Time course and mechanisms of endo-epicardial electrical dissociation during atrial fibrillation in the goat

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    Aims This study aims to determine the degree and mechanisms of endo-epicardial dissociation of electrical activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) and endo-epicardial differences in atrial electrophysiology at different stages of atrial remodelling. Methods and results Simultaneous high-density endo-epicardial mapping of AF was performed on left atrial free walls of goats with acute AF, after 3 weeks, and after 6 months of AF (all n = 7). Endo-epicardial activation time differences and differences in the direction of conduction vectors were calculated, endocardial and epicardial effective refractory periods (ERP) were determined, and fractionation of electrograms was quantified. Histograms of endo-epicardial activation time differences and differences in the direction of conduction vectors revealed two distinct populations, i.e. dissociated and non-dissociated activity. Dyssynchronous activity (dissociated in time) increased from 17 ± 7% during acute AF to 39 ± 17% after 3 weeks, and 68 ± 13% after 6 months of AF. Dissociation was more pronounced in thicker parts of the atrial wall (thick: 49.3 ± 21.4%, thin: 42.2 ± 19.0%, P < 0.05). At baseline, endocardial ERPs were longer when compared with epicardial ERPs (ΔERP, 21.8 ± 18 ms; P < 0.001). This difference was absent after 6 months of AF. The percentage of fractionated electrograms during rapid pacing increased from 9.4 ± 1.9% (baseline) to 18.6 ± 0.6% (6 months). Conclusion During AF, pronounced dissociation of electrical activity occurs between the epicardial layer and the endocardial bundle network. The increase in dissociation is due to owing to progressive uncoupling between the epicardial layer and the endocardial bundles and correlates with increasing stability and complexity of the AF substrat

    Twitter for professional use in electrophysiology: practical guide for #EPeeps.

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    Abstract Social media (SoMe) becomes more and more popular in the cardiological community. Among them, Twitter is an emerging and dynamic medium to connect, communicate and educate academic and clinical cardiologists. However, in contrast to traditional scientific communications, the content provided through SoMe is not peer-reviewed and may not necessarily always represent scientific evidence or may even be used to unjustifiably promote therapies for commercial purposes. For the unintended, this means of communication might be appear difficult to handle. This article aims to provide a practical guide on how to use Twitter efficiently for professional use to keep yourself up-to-date about new techniques, the latest study results and news presented at national or international conferences. Additionally, important limitations will be discussed

    CPAP initiation in persistent atrial fibrillation: Have we overslept the alarm clock?

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    ┬ę 2018 Elsevier Ltd. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ This author accepted manuscript is made available following 12 month embargo from date of publication (December 2018) in accordance with the publisherÔÇÖs archiving policyThe results of multiple basic science and mechanistic clinical studies form a solid basis for a plausible pathophysiological link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and atrial fibrillation (AF)

    Repeated exposure to transient obstructive sleep apnea-related conditions causes an atrial fibrillation substrate in a chronic rat model

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    Background High night-to-night variability in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Obstructive apneas are characterized by intermittent deoxygenation-reoxygenation and intrathoracic pressure swings during ineffective inspiration against occluded upper airways. Objective We elucidated the effect of repeated exposure to transient OSA conditions simulated by intermittent negative upper airway pressure (INAP) on the development of an AF substrate. Methods INAP (48 events/4 h; apnea-hypopnea index 12 events/h) was applied in sedated spontaneously breathing rats (2% isoflurane) to simulate mild-to-moderate OSA. Rats without INAP served as a control group (CTR). In an acute test series (ATS), rats were either killed immediately (n = 9 per group) or after 24 hours of recovery (ATS-REC: n = 5 per group). To simulate high night-to-night variability in OSA, INAP applications (n = 10; 24 events/4 h; apnea-hypopnea index 6/h) were repeated every second day for 3 weeks in a chronic test series (CTS). Results INAP increased atrial oxidative stress acutely, represented in decreases of reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio (ATS: INAP: 0.33 ┬▒ 0.05 vs CTR: 1 ┬▒ 0.26; P = .016), which was reversible after 24 hours (ATS-REC: INAP vs CTR; P = .274). Although atrial oxidative stress did not accumulate in the CTS, atrial histological analysis revealed increased cardiomyocyte diameters, reduced connexin 43 expression, and increased interstitial fibrosis formation (CTS: INAP 7.0% ┬▒ 0.5% vs CTR 5.1% ┬▒ 0.3%; P = .013), which were associated with longer inducible AF episodes (CTS: INAP: 11.65 ┬▒ 4.43 seconds vs CTR: 0.7 ┬▒ 0.33 seconds; P = .033). Conclusion Acute simulation of OSA was associated with reversible atrial oxidative stress. Cumulative exposure to these transient OSA-related conditions resulted in AF substrates and was associated with increased AF susceptibility. Mild-to-moderate OSA with high night-to-night variability may deserve intensive management to prevent atrial substrate development
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