384 research outputs found

    Bone marrow-derived, alternatively activated macrophages enhance solid tumor growth and lung metastasis of mammary carcinoma cells in a Balb/C mouse orthotopic model

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    INTRODUCTION: Tumor-associated macrophages, which are derived from the infiltration of circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes, consist primarily of a polarized M2 macrophage (M2-Mϕ) population and are associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. In the present study, we attempted to assess whether M2-Mϕs derived from bone marrow stimulate the promotion and progression of mammary tumors. METHODS: 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells were injected either alone or coupled with M2-Mϕs into the mammary fat pads of syngeneic female Balb/C mice. M2-Mϕs were prepared by treating monocytes isolated from female Balb/C mouse bone marrow with IL-4. Tumor cell growth was determined using an in vivo imaging system and the expression of cell proliferation-related, angiogenesis-related, and lymphangiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues was immunohistochemically analyzed. To evaluate the effects of the crosstalk between 4T1 cells and M2-Mϕs on the secretion and mRNA expression of cytokines and the migration of monocytes, 4T1 cells and M2-Mϕs were co-cultured and cytokine antibody array, real-time RT-PCR, and trans-well migration assays were conducted. RESULTS: The co-injection of M2-Mϕs into the mammary fat pads of mice increased solid tumor growth and lung metastasis of 4T1 cells as well as the infiltration of CD45(+ )leukocytes into tumor tissues. The proportions of Ki-67(+ )proliferating cells and the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial cell growth factor A, CD31, vascular endothelial cell growth factor C, and lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 were increased significantly in the tumor tissues of mice co-injected with 4T1 cells and M2-Mϕs. The in vitro results revealed that the proliferation of 4T1 cells, the migration of monocytes, and the secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-16, IFNγ-induced protein-10, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and RANTES were increased when 4T1 cells were co-cultured with M2-Mϕs, as compared with when the 4T1 cells were cultured alone. CONCLUSION: The crosstalk between 4T1 cells and M2-Mϕs increased the production of cytokines, which may have induced immune cell infiltration into tumor tissues, tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and lymph angiogenesis, thereby increasing solid tumor growth and lung metastasis

    Trans-Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells: A Therapeutic Mechanism Against the Radiation Induced Brain Damage

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    Radiation therapy is an indispensable therapeutic modality for various brain diseases. Though endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) would provide regenerative potential, many patients nevertheless suffer from radiation-induced brain damage. Accordingly, we tested beneficial effects of exogenous NSC supplementation using in vivo mouse models that received whole brain irradiation. Systemic supplementation of primarily cultured mouse fetal NSCs inhibited radiation-induced brain atrophy and thereby preserved brain functions such as short-term memory. Transplanted NSCs migrated to the irradiated brain and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. In addition, neurotrophic factors such as NGF were significantly increased in the brain by NSCs, indicating that both paracrine and replacement effects could be the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. Interestingly, NSCs also differentiated into brain endothelial cells, which was accompanied by the restoration the cerebral blood flow that was reduced from the irradiation. Inhibition of the VEGF signaling reduced the migration and trans-differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, trans-differentiation of NSCs into brain endothelial cells by the VEGF signaling and the consequential restoration of the cerebral blood flow would also be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that exogenous NSC supplementation could prevent radiation-induced functional loss of the brain. Therefore, successful combination of brain radiation therapy and NSC supplementation would provide a highly promising therapeutic option for patients with various brain diseases

    Favorable response to doxorubicin combination chemotherapy does not yield good clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer with triple-negative phenotype

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>We analyzed the responses to first line treatment and clinical outcomes of metastatic breast cancer patients treated with palliative doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) according to molecular cancer subtype.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A retrospective analysis was performed for 110 metastatic breast cancer patients selected on the basis of palliative AC treatment and the availability of immunohistochemical data for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu) status.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Of the 110 patients analyzed, 71 (64.5%) were hormone receptor positive (HR+), 14 (12.7%) were HER2+, and 25 (22.7%) were triple negative (TN). There were no differences in age, stage at diagnosis, total number of cycles of palliative chemotherapy, incidence of visceral metastasis, and metastatic sites with the exception of liver among breast cancer subtypes. The overall response rates to AC were 55.9% for the HR+ subgroup, 42.9% for the HER2+ subgroup, and 56.5% for the TN subgroup. The progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with HER2+ and TN were significantly shorter than in the HR+ (median PFS, 9.1 <it>vs </it>8.1 <it>vs </it>11.5 months, respectively; p = 0.0002). The overall survival (OS) was 25.4 months in the TN subgroup and 27.3 months in HER2+ subgroup. The median OS for these two groups was significantly shorter than for patients in the HR+ subgroup (median, 38.5 months; 95% CI, 30.1-46.9 months; p < 0.0001).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The response to palliative AC chemotherapy did not differ among breast cancer subtypes. Despite chemosensitivity for palliative AC, the TN subtype has a shorter overall survival than non-TN subtypes. Innovative treatment strategies should be developed to slow the course of disease.</p

    Autophagy deficiency leads to protection from obesity and insulin resistance by inducing Fgf21 as a mitokine

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    Despite growing interest and a recent surge in papers, the role of autophagy in glucose and lipid metabolism is unclear. We produced mice with skeletal muscle–specific deletion of Atg7 (encoding autophagy-related 7). Unexpectedly, these mice showed decreased fat mass and were protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance; this phenotype was accompanied by increased fatty acid oxidation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) owing to induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21). Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by autophagy deficiency increased Fgf21 expression through induction of Atf4, a master regulator of the integrated stress response. Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors also induced Fgf21 in an Atf4-dependent manner. We also observed induction of Fgf21, resistance to diet-induced obesity and amelioration of insulin resistance in mice with autophagy deficiency in the liver, another insulin target tissue. These findings suggest that autophagy deficiency and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction promote Fgf21 expression, a hormone we consequently term a 'mitokine', and together these processes promote protection from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance