950 research outputs found

    Effects of Solute-Solute Interactions on Protein Stability Studied Using Various Counterions and Dendrimers

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    Much work has been performed on understanding the effects of additives on protein thermodynamics and degradation kinetics, in particular addressing the Hofmeister series and other broad empirical phenomena. Little attention, however, has been paid to the effect of additive-additive interactions on proteins. Our group and others have recently shown that such interactions can actually govern protein events, such as aggregation. Here we use dendrimers, which have the advantage that both size and surface chemical groups can be changed and therein studied independently. Dendrimers are a relatively new and broad class of materials which have been demonstrated useful in biological and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery, perturbing amyloid formation, etc. Guanidinium modified dendrimers pose an interesting case given that guanidinium can form multiple attractive hydrogen bonds with either a protein surface or other components in solution, such as hydrogen bond accepting counterions. Here we present a study which shows that the behavior of such macromolecule species (modified PAMAM dendrimers) is governed by intra-solvent interactions. Attractive guanidinium-anion interactions seem to cause clustering in solution, which inhibits cooperative binding to the protein surface but at the same time, significantly suppresses nonnative aggregation.Singapore-MIT Allianc

    Anaphors in Sanskrit

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    Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Anaphora Resolution (WAR II). Editor: Christer Johansson. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol. 2 (2008), 11-25. © 2008 The editors and contributors. Published by Northern European Association for Language Technology (NEALT) http://omilia.uio.no/nealt . Electronically published at Tartu University Library (Estonia) http://hdl.handle.net/10062/7129

    Management Procedures for Pearl Millet Improvement

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    Do male engagement and couples’ communication influence maternal health care-seeking? Findings from a household survey in Mozambique

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    Background: This study explored effects of couples’ communication and male participation in birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) on delivery in a health facility (“institutional delivery”). A cross-sectional, baseline household survey was conducted in November 2016 prior to an integrated maternal and child health project in Nampula and Sofala Provinces in Mozambique. Methods: The study used the Knowledge, Practices and Coverage survey tool, a condensed version of the Demographic and Health Survey and other tools. The sample included 1422 women. Multivariable logit regression models tested the association of institutional delivery with couples’ communication and four elements of BPCR both with and without male partners: 1) saving money, 2) arranging transport, 3) choosing a birth companion, and 4) choosing a delivery site; controlling for partners’ attendance in antenatal care and social and demographic determinants (education, wealth, urban/rural location, and province). Results: The odds that women would deliver in a health facility were 46% greater (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–2.10, p = 0.04) amongst women who discussed family planning with their partners than those who did not. Approximately half of this effect was mediated through BPCR. When a woman arranged transport on her own, there was no significant increase in institutional delivery, but with partner involvement, there was a larger, significant association (aOR = 4.31, 2.64–7.02). Similarly, when a woman chose a delivery site on her own, there was no significant association with institutional delivery (aOR 1.52,0.81–2.83), but with her partner, there was a larger and significant association (aOR 1.98, 1.16–3.36). Neither saving money nor choosing a birth companion showed a significant association with institutional delivery—with or without partner involvement. The odds of delivering in a facility were 28% less amongst poor women whose partners did not participate in BPCR than wealthy women, but when partners helped choose a place of delivery and arrange transport, this gap was nearly eliminated. Conclusions: Our findings add to growing global evidence that men play an important role in improving maternal and newborn health, particularly through BPCR, and that couples’ communication is a key approach for promoting high-impact health behaviors

    Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of PVP Encapsulated CdS Nanoparticles

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    Highly monodispersed CdS nanoparticles using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent were synthesised by chemical coprecipitation method. The surface‐modified cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were found to be remarkably stable. In the presence of PVP, cubic phase with small grain size of CdS were observed in XRD. The peaks were identified to originate from (111), (220) and (311) planes of CdS, respectively. The crystallite size of the synthesised CdS nanoparticles was about 3 nm calculated from the (111) plane of XRD pattern and it was also confirmed through HRTEM. Morphology and elemental mapping of the synthesised nanoparticles were studied by SEM and EDX analyses. Increase in the band gap with decrease in the particle size was observed from the reflectance mode UV spectrum, which confirms the quantum confinement effect. From the photoluminescence studies, enhanced near‐band‐edge blue light emission and significantly reduced defect‐related green emission were observed. Longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes, corresponds to pure CdS were observed in Raman spectrum

    Distribution and species diversity of phytoplankton in the inshore waters of Tuticorin in relation to the physicochemical variables

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    A study was conducted to evaluate the phytoplankton community structure and its relationship with selected physicochemical variables in the inshore waters of Tuticorin during January to December 2008. Water and plankton samples from the surface waters at two depths (5m and 10m) were collected on board the research vessel Cadalmin-IV. Standard methods were followed for phytoplankton identification, enumeration and estimation of physicochemical variables. The present study recorded 69 species of phytoplankton with 85.5% dominance of diatoms followed by 14.5% of dinoflagellates. The overall density of phytoplankton was comparatively higher at 10 m with a mean of 2.14x104 ±0.4x104 cells L-1 and 3.37x104 ±0.9x104 cells L-1 at 5 m and 10 m depth respectively. The analysis indicated that 10 m depth, especially during the monsoon season, is rich in diversity of algal species than at the same depth during post-monsoon. It is confirmed that the population density of phytoplankton is more influenced by seasonal fluctuation of the physicochemical variables especially due to the effect of northeast monsoon in the inshore waters of Tuticorin
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