16 research outputs found

    Few time traces of of the leader for (a) and (b) actin filaments, at a concentration and at different values of scaled forces.

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    <p>At these forces, the corresponding values of wall-diffusion coefficient are shown by arrows in Fig. 8a (red arrows for and green arrows for ).</p

    Average cap size as a function of for (a) actin filaments and (b) microtubules, and for filament numbers (red), (green) and (blue).

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    <p>The concentrations are for actin, and for microtubule. Y-axes are in log scale. Note that the single filament stall forces are 0.68 pN for actin and 0.97 pN for microtubule.</p

    Average collapse times <i>T</i><sub>coll</sub> as a function of scaled force with increasing number of filaments (<b><i>N</i></b>), for (a) actin filaments and (b) microtubules.

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    <p>Blue and red curves are with hydrolysis () and without hydrolysis () respectively. The curves are plotted by scaling the force-axis with corresponding single-filament stall forces. For , the numerically obtained values of single-filament stall forces are pN for actin, and pN for microtubule. While, for , the corresponding single-filament stall forces are obtained from the formula (see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone.0114014-vanDoorn1" target="_blank">[27]</a>) – these are pN for actin, and pN for microtubule. Parameters are taken from <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone-0114014-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>. The ATP/GTP concentrations are for actin, and for microtubules.</p

    Negative effective dynamic mass-density and stiffness: Micro-architecture and phononic transport in periodic composites

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    We report the results of the calculation of negative effective density and negative effective compliance for a layered composite. We show that the frequency-dependent effective properties remain positive for cases which lack the possibility of localized resonances (a 2-phase composite) whereas they may become negative for cases where there exists a possibility of local resonance below the length-scale of the wavelength (a 3-phase composite). We also show that the introduction of damping in the system considerably affects the effective properties in the frequency region close to the resonance. It is envisaged that this demonstration of doubly negative material characteristics for 1-D wave propagation would pave the way for the design and synthesis of doubly negative material response for full 3-D elastic wave propagation

    Average cap size as a function of scaled force for microtubules, and for filament numbers (red), and (green).

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    <p>The system is in the bounded phase for forces greater than the stall forces. The GTP concentration is , and other parameters are specified in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone-0114014-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>. The Y-axis is in log scale.</p

    Rates for Actin [1], [3] and Microtubules (MT) [1], [4], [19].

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    <p>Rates for Actin <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone.0114014-Howard1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone.0114014-Pollard1" target="_blank">[3]</a> and Microtubules (MT) <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone.0114014-Howard1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone.0114014-Desai1" target="_blank">[4]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone.0114014-Mitchison1" target="_blank">[19]</a>.</p

    Schematic diagram of three-filament system with random hydrolysis, where the switching ATP/GTP → ADP/GDP occurs randomly at any ATP/GTP subunit.

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    <p>ATP/GTP and ADP/GDP subunits are shown as letters ‘T’ (blue) and ‘D’ (red) respectively. The left wall is fixed, while the right wall is movable with an externally applied force <i>f</i> pushing against it. Various possible events (as described in the text) are shown with arrows and corresponding rates.</p

    The diffusion constant of the wall position as a function of scaled force for (a) actin filaments and (b) microtubules, with filament number (red), (green) and (blue).

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    <p>Concentrations are for actin and for microtubule (for other parameters see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone-0114014-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>). In (a), the arrows correspond to the force values at which we shall investigate the cap dynamics of the filaments in the next section (see Fig. 9).</p

    A time trace of the wall position <i>x</i>(<i>t</i>) for two microtubules (<i>N</i>  =  2) in the bounded phase, showing “collective catastrophe”, at a concentration <i>c</i>  =  100<i>µ</i>M , and at a force <i>f</i>  =  36.8 pN (<i>c<sub>crit</sub></i>  =  8.67<i>µ</i>M, and pN in this case).

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    <p>Other parameters are taken from <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114014#pone-0114014-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>. The regions shaded grey correspond to the catastrophes, and provide the collapse time intervals whose average is <i>T</i><sub>coll</sub>.</p
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