1,131 research outputs found

    Retinal pigment epithelium degeneration caused by aggregation of PRPF31 and the role of HSP70 family of proteins

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    Background Mutations in pre-mRNA splicing factor PRPF31 can lead to retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although the exact disease mechanism remains unknown, it has been hypothesized that haploinsufficiency might be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Methods In this study, we have analyzed a mouse model containing the p.A216P mutation in Prpf31 gene. Results We found that mutant Prpf31 protein produces cytoplasmic aggregates in the retinal pigment epithelium and decreasing the protein levels of this splicing factor in the nucleus. Additionally, normal protein was recruited in insoluble aggregates when the mutant protein was overexpressed in vitro. In response to protein aggregation, Hspa4l is overexpressed. This member of the HSP70 family of chaperones might contribute to the correct folding and solubilization of the mutant protein, allowing its translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions Our data suggests that a mechanism haploinsufficiency and dominant-negative is involved in retinal degeneration due to mutations in PRPF31. HSP70 over-expression might be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of retinal degeneration due to PRPF31 mutations.This project has been financed through a) The ISCIII (Miguel Servet-I, 2015), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), No CP15/00071. b) The European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, under grant agreement No 634479. c) Regional Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Science of the Junta de Andalucía, No P09-CTS-04967.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Cholinergic-serotonergic imbalance contributes to cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease

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    Neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not simply a consequence of neurodegeneration, but probably result from differential neurotransmitter alterations, which some patients are more at risk of than others. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that an imbalance between the cholinergic and serotonergic systems is related to cognitive symptoms and psychological syndromes of dementia (BPSD) in patients with AD. Cholinergic and serotonergic functions were assessed in post-mortem frontal and temporal cortex from 22 AD patients who had been prospectively assessed with the Mini-Mental State examination (MMSE) for cognitive impairment and with the Present Behavioral Examination (PBE) for BPSD including aggressive behavior, overactivity, depression and psychosis. Not only cholinergic deficits, but also the cholinacetyltransferase/serotonin ratio significantly correlated with final MMSE score both in frontal and temporal cortex. In addition, decreases in cholinergic function correlated with the aggressive behavior factor, supporting a dual role for the cholinergic system in cognitive and non-cognitive disturbances associated to AD. The serotonergic system showed a significant correlation with overactivity and psychosis. The ratio of serotonin to acetylcholinesterase levels was also correlated with the psychotic factor at least in women. It is concluded that an imbalance between cholinergic-serotonergic systems may be responsible for the cognitive impairment associated to AD. Moreover, the major findings of this study are the relationships between neurochemical markers of both cholinergic and serotonergic systems and non-cognitive behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia

    Neurogenetics of Dynamic Connectivity Patterns Associated With Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Healthy Children

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    Background: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) during childhood predispose to obsessive-compulsive disorder and have been associated with changes in brain circuits altered in obsessive-compulsive disorder samples. OCSs may arise from disturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission, impairing cognitive oscillations and promoting overstable functional states. Methods: A total of 227 healthy children completed the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version and underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging examination. Genome-wide data were obtained from 149 of them. We used a graph theory-based approach and characterized associations between OCSs and dynamic functional connectivity (dFC). dFC evaluates fluctuations over time in FC between brain regions, which allows characterizing regions with stable connectivity patterns (attractors). We then compared the spatial similarity between OCS-dFC correlation maps and mappings of genetic expression across brain regions to identify genes potentially associated with connectivity changes. In post hoc analyses, we investigated which specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of these genes moderated the association between OCSs and patterns of dFC. Results: OCSs correlated with decreased attractor properties in the left ventral putamen and increased attractor properties in (pre)motor areas and the left hippocampus. At the specific symptom level, increased attractor properties in the right superior parietal cortex correlated with ordering symptoms. In the hippocampus, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms in glutamatergic neurotransmission genes (GRM7, GNAQ) that moderated the association between OCSs and attractor features. Conclusions: We provide evidence that in healthy children, the association between dFC changes and OCSs may be mapped onto brain circuits predicted by prevailing neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Moreover, our findings support the involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in such brain network changes

    Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

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    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval population

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for supersymmetry through the pair production of electroweakinos with mass splittings near the electroweak scale and decaying via on-shell W and Z bosons is presented for a three-lepton final state. The analyzed proton-proton collision data taken at a center-of-mass energy of √s=13  TeV were collected between 2015 and 2018 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  fb−1. A search, emulating the recursive jigsaw reconstruction technique with easily reproducible laboratory-frame variables, is performed. The two excesses observed in the 2015–2016 data recursive jigsaw analysis in the low-mass three-lepton phase space are reproduced. Results with the full data set are in agreement with the Standard Model expectations. They are interpreted to set exclusion limits at the 95% confidence level on simplified models of chargino-neutralino pair production for masses up to 345 GeV

    Neurogenetics of Dynamic Connectivity Patterns Associated With Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Healthy Children

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    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) during childhood predispose to obsessive-compulsive disorder and have been associated with changes in brain circuits altered in obsessive-compulsive disorder samples. OCSs may arise from disturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission, impairing cognitive oscillations and promoting overstable functional states. A total of 227 healthy children completed the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version and underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging examination. Genome-wide data were obtained from 149 of them. We used a graph theory-based approach and characterized associations between OCSs and dynamic functional connectivity (dFC). dFC evaluates fluctuations over time in FC between brain regions, which allows characterizing regions with stable connectivity patterns (attractors). We then compared the spatial similarity between OCS-dFC correlation maps and mappings of genetic expression across brain regions to identify genes potentially associated with connectivity changes. In post hoc analyses, we investigated which specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of these genes moderated the association between OCSs and patterns of dFC. OCSs correlated with decreased attractor properties in the left ventral putamen and increased attractor properties in (pre)motor areas and the left hippocampus. At the specific symptom level, increased attractor properties in the right superior parietal cortex correlated with ordering symptoms. In the hippocampus, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms in glutamatergic neurotransmission genes (GRM7, GNAQ) that moderated the association between OCSs and attractor features. We provide evidence that in healthy children, the association between dFC changes and OCSs may be mapped onto brain circuits predicted by prevailing neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Moreover, our findings support the involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in such brain network changes

    Characteristics of specialists treating hypothyroid patients: the “THESIS” collaborative

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    Copyright \ua9 2023 Žarković, Attanasio, Nagy, Negro, Papini, Perros, Cohen, Akarsu, Alevizaki, Ayvaz, Bednarczuk, Berta, Bodor, Borissova, Boyanov, Buffet, Burlacu, Ćirić, D\uedez, Dobnig, Fadeyev, Field, Fliers, Fr\uf8lich, F\ufchrer, Galofr\ue9, Hakala, Jiskra, Kopp, Krebs, Kršek, Kužma, Lantz, Laz\ufarov\ue1, Leenhardt, Luchytskiy, McGowan, Melo, Metso, Moran, Morgunova, Mykola, Beleslin, Niculescu, Perić, Planck, Poiana, Puga, Robenshtok, Rosselet, Ruchala, Riis, Shepelkevich, Unuane, Vardarli, Visser, Vrionidou, Younes, Yurenya and Heged\ufcs.Introduction: Thyroid specialists influence how hypothyroid patients are treated, including patients managed in primary care. Given that physician characteristics influence patient care, this study aimed to explore thyroid specialist profiles and associations with geo-economic factors. Methods: Thyroid specialists from 28 countries were invited to respond to a questionnaire, Treatment of Hypothyroidism in Europe by Specialists: an International Survey (THESIS). Geographic regions were defined according to the United Nations Statistics Division. The national economic status was estimated using World Bank data on the gross national income per capita (GNI per capita). Results: 5,695 valid responses were received (response rate 33\ub70%). The mean age was 49 years, and 65\ub70% were female. The proportion of female respondents was lowest in Northern (45\ub76%) and highest in Eastern Europe (77\ub72%) (p <0\ub7001). Respondent work volume, university affiliation and private practice differed significantly between countries (p<0\ub7001). Age and GNI per capita were correlated inversely with the proportion of female respondents (p<0\ub701). GNI per capita was inversely related to the proportion of respondents working exclusively in private practice (p<0\ub7011) and the proportion of respondents who treated >100 patients annually (p<0\ub701). Discussion: THESIS has demonstrated differences in characteristics of thyroid specialists at national and regional levels, strongly associated with GNI per capita. Hypothyroid patients in middle-income countries are more likely to encounter female thyroid specialists working in private practice, with a high workload, compared to high-income countries. Whether these differences influence the quality of care and patient satisfaction is unknown, but merits further study

    Micromechanical Properties of Injection-Molded Starch–Wood Particle Composites

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    The micromechanical properties of injection molded starch–wood particle composites were investigated as a function of particle content and humidity conditions. The composite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The microhardness of the composites was shown to increase notably with the concentration of the wood particles. In addition,creep behavior under the indenter and temperature dependence were evaluated in terms of the independent contribution of the starch matrix and the wood microparticles to the hardness value. The influence of drying time on the density and weight uptake of the injection-molded composites was highlighted. The results revealed the role of the mechanism of water evaporation, showing that the dependence of water uptake and temperature was greater for the starch–wood composites than for the pure starch sample. Experiments performed during the drying process at 70°C indicated that the wood in the starch composites did not prevent water loss from the samples.Peer reviewe

    Search for Higgs bosons produced via vector-boson fusion and decaying into bottom quark pairs in √s =13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector