31 research outputs found

    Predictors of kidney function recovery among incident ESRD patients

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    Abstract Background ESRD is considered an irreversible loss of renal function, yet some patients will recover kidney function sufficiently to come off dialysis. Potentially modifiable predictors of kidney recovery, such as dialysis prescription, have not been fully examined. Methods Retrospective cohort study using United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data to identify incident hemodialysis (HD) patients between 2012 and 2016, the first 4 years for which dialysis treatment data is available. The primary outcome was kidney recovery within 1 year of ESRD and HD initiation, defined by a specific recovery code and survival off dialysis for at least 30 days. Patient and treatment characteristics were compared between those that recovered versus those that remained dialysis-dependent. A time-dependent survival model was used to identify independent predictors of kidney recovery. Results During the study period, there were 372,387 incident HD patients with available data, among whom 16,930 (4.5%) recovered to dialysis-independence. Compared to non-recovery, a higher proportion of patients with kidney recovery were of white race, and non-Hispanic ethnicity. Both groups had a similar age distribution. Patients with an acute kidney injury diagnosis as primary cause of ESRD were most likely to recover, but the most common ESRD diagnosis among recovering patients was type 2 diabetes (29.8% of recovery cases). Higher eGFR and lower albumin at ESRD initiation were associated with increased likelihood of recovery. When examining HD ultrafiltration rate (UFR), each quintile above the first quintile was associated with a progressively lower likelihood of recovery (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.43–0.48 for highest versus lowest quintile, p < 0.001). Conclusions We identified non-modifiable and potentially modifiable factors associated with kidney recovery which may assist clinicians in counseling and monitoring incident ESRD patients with a greater chance to gain dialysis-independence. Clinical trials are warranted to examine the impact of dialysis prescription on subsequent kidney function recovery.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/173573/1/12882_2021_Article_2345.pd

    In-Hospital and 1-Year Mortality Trends in a National Cohort of US Veterans with Acute Kidney Injury

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AKI, a frequent complication among hospitalized patients, confers excess short- and long-term mortality. We sought to determine trends in in-hospital and 1-year mortality associated with AKI as defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes consensus criteria. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This retrospective cohort study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration on all patients hospitalized from October 1, 2008 to September 31, 2017. AKI was defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria. In-hospital and 1-year mortality trends were analyzed in patients with and without AKI using Cox regression with year as a continuous variable. RESULTS: We identified 1,688,457 patients and 2,689,093 hospitalizations across the study period. Among patients with AKI, 6% died in hospital, and 28% died within 1 year. In contrast, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 0.8% and 14%, respectively, among non-AKI hospitalizations. During the study period, there was a slight decline in crude in-hospital AKI-associated mortality (hazard ratio, 0.98 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 0.99) that was attenuated after accounting for patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and acute hospitalization characteristics (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.99 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.00). This stable temporal trend in mortality persisted at 1 year (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: AKI associated mortality remains high, as greater than one in four patients with AKI died within 1 year of hospitalization. Over the past decade, there seems to have been no significant progress toward improving in-hospital or long-term AKI survivorship

    Exploring reasons for state-level variation in incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in the United States

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    Background: There is considerable state-level variation in the incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D). However, little is known about reasons for this geographic variation. Methods: National cross-sectional state-level ecological study based on State Inpatient Databases (SID) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2011. We analyzed 18 states and six chronic health conditions (diabetes mellitus [diabetes], hypertension, chronic kidney disease [CKD], arteriosclerotic heart disease [ASHD], cancer (excluding skin cancer), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). Associations between each of the chronic health conditions and AKI-D incidence was assessed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression adjusting for mean age, the proportion of males, and the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in each state. Results: The state-level AKI-D incidence ranged from 190 to 1139 per million population. State-level differences in rates of hospitalization with chronic health conditions (mostly \u3c 3-fold difference in range) were larger than the state-level differences in prevalence for each chronic health condition (mostly \u3c 2.5-fold difference in range). A significant correlation was shown between AKI-D incidence and prevalence of diabetes, ASHD, and COPD, as well as between AKI-D incidence and rate of hospitalization with hypertension. In regression models, after adjusting for age, sex, and race, AKI-D incidence was associated with prevalence of and rates of hospitalization with five chronic health conditions - diabetes, hypertension, CKD, ASHD and COPD - and rates of hospitalization with cancer. Conclusions: Results from this ecological analysis suggest that state-level variation in AKI-D incidence may be influenced by state-level variations in prevalence of and rates of hospitalization with several chronic health conditions. For most of the explored chronic conditions, AKI-D correlated stronger with rates of hospitalizations with the health conditions rather than with their prevalences, suggesting that better disease management strategies that prevent hospitalizations may translate into lower incidence of AKI-D

    Exploring reasons for state-level variation in incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in the United States

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    Background: There is considerable state-level variation in the incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D). However, little is known about reasons for this geographic variation. Methods: National cross-sectional state-level ecological study based on State Inpatient Databases (SID) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2011. We analyzed 18 states and six chronic health conditions (diabetes mellitus [diabetes], hypertension, chronic kidney disease [CKD], arteriosclerotic heart disease [ASHD], cancer (excluding skin cancer), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). Associations between each of the chronic health conditions and AKI-D incidence was assessed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression adjusting for mean age, the proportion of males, and the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in each state. Results: The state-level AKI-D incidence ranged from 190 to 1139 per million population. State-level differences in rates of hospitalization with chronic health conditions (mostly \u3c 3-fold difference in range) were larger than the state-level differences in prevalence for each chronic health condition (mostly \u3c 2.5-fold difference in range). A significant correlation was shown between AKI-D incidence and prevalence of diabetes, ASHD, and COPD, as well as between AKI-D incidence and rate of hospitalization with hypertension. In regression models, after adjusting for age, sex, and race, AKI-D incidence was associated with prevalence of and rates of hospitalization with five chronic health conditions - diabetes, hypertension, CKD, ASHD and COPD - and rates of hospitalization with cancer. Conclusions: Results from this ecological analysis suggest that state-level variation in AKI-D incidence may be influenced by state-level variations in prevalence of and rates of hospitalization with several chronic health conditions. For most of the explored chronic conditions, AKI-D correlated stronger with rates of hospitalizations with the health conditions rather than with their prevalences, suggesting that better disease management strategies that prevent hospitalizations may translate into lower incidence of AKI-D
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