4 research outputs found

    Identifying the necessary capacities for the adaptation of a diabetes phenotyping algorithm in countries of differing economic development status

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    Background In 2019, the World Health Organization recognised diabetes as a clinically and pathophysiologically heterogeneous set of related diseases. Little is currently known about the diabetes phenotypes in the population of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet identifying their different risks and aetiology has great potential to guide the development of more effective, tailored prevention and treatment. Objectives This study reviewed the scope of diabetes datasets, health information ecosystems, and human resource capacity in four countries to assess whether a diabetes phenotyping algorithm (developed under a companion study) could be successfully applied. Methods The capacity assessment was undertaken with four countries: Trinidad, Malaysia, Kenya, and Rwanda. Diabetes programme staff completed a checklist of available diabetes data variables and then participated in semi-structured interviews about Health Information System (HIS) ecosystem conditions, diabetes programme context, and human resource needs. Descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results Only Malaysia collected the full set of the required diabetes data for the diabetes algorithm, although all countries did collect the required diabetes complication data. An HIS ecosystem existed in all settings, with variations in data hosting and sharing. All countries had access to HIS or ICT support, and epidemiologists or biostatisticians to support dataset preparation and algorithm application. Conclusions Malaysia was found to be most ready to apply the phenotyping algorithm. A fundamental impediment in the other settings was the absence of several core diabetes data variables. Additionally, if countries digitise diabetes data collection and centralise diabetes data hosting, this will simplify dataset preparation for algorithm application. These issues reflect common LMIC health systems’ weaknesses in relation to diabetes care, and specifically highlight the importance of investment in improving diabetes data, which can guide population-tailored prevention and management approaches

    Diabetes prevention in the Caribbean using Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin Escalation (LIME): Protocol for a hybrid Type-1 effectiveness-implementation trial using a quasi-experimental study design

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    Background: Globally, several diabetes prevention interventions have been shown to be cost-effective, yet they have had limited adaptation, implementation, and evaluation in the Caribbean and among Caribbean-descent individuals, where the burden of type 2 diabetes is high. We report on the protocol for the Lifestyle Intervention with Metformin Escalation (LIME) study – an evidence-based diabetes prevention intervention to reduce the incidence of diabetes among Caribbean-descent individuals with prediabetes. Methods: LIME is a hybrid type-I effectiveness-implementation quasi-experimental study taking place in 4 clinical sites in Barbados, Trinidad, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. LIME targets individuals who self-identify as Caribbean or Caribbean-descent and have high-risk prediabetes with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) between 6 and 6.4%. Eligible participants in the intervention arm are enrolled in a six-week lifestyle modification workshop. Six months later, individuals who have not lost at least 5% of their bodyweight or continue to have an HbA1c of 6% or higher are prescribed metformin medication. In total, participants are followed for one year. The primary effectiveness outcome is proportion of individuals who lower their HbA1c below 6%. Discussion: LIME is a unique diabetes prevention intervention for Caribbean and Caribbean-descent individuals. LIME utilizes a tailored lifestyle change curriculum, incorporates appropriate metformin prescribing when lifestyle change alone is insufficient, targets the highest-risk individuals with prediabetes, and is based in a clinical setting to ensure sustainability

    Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs) prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years) with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a reference. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. RESULTS: The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM) in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p < 0.001). Amoxicillin alone or with clavulanate was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for all URTIs. Prescribing variations from the CDC recommendations were observed for all URTIs except for AOM (50%), the most common condition for antibiotics. Doctors practicing for >30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014). Severity (95.7%) and duration of illness (82.5%) influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75%) and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%). Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86%) and the waiting time for results is too long (51%). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary bacterial infections are prescribing pressures. Guidelines to manage URTIs, ongoing surveillance programs for antibiotic resistance, public health education on non-antibiotic strategies, and postgraduate education for rational pharmacotherapy in general practice would decrease inappropriate antibiotic use in URTIs