62 research outputs found

    The causal relationship between 41 inflammatory cytokines and hypothyroidism: bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization study

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    ObjectiveInvestigating the association between inflammatory cytokines and hypothyroidism remains challenging due to limitations in traditional observational studies. In this study, we employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess the causal relationship between 41 inflammatory cytokines and hypothyroidism.MethodInflammatory cytokines in 30,155 individuals of European ancestry with hypothyroidism and in a GWAS summary containing 8,293 healthy participants were included in the study for bidirectional two-sample MR analysis. We utilized inverse variance weighting (IVW), weighted median (WM), and Mendelian randomization-Egger (MR-Egger) methods. Multiple sensitivity analyses, including MR-Egger intercept test, leave-one-out analysis, funnel plot, scatterplot, and MR-PRESSO, were applied to evaluate assumptions.ResultsWe found evidence of a causal effect of IL-7 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1╬▓ (MIP-1╬▓) on the risk of hypothyroidism, and a causal effect of hypothyroidism on several cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), IL-13, IL-16, IL-2r╬▒, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, interferon-╬│-inducible protein 10 (IP10), monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-╬│ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1╬▓ (MIP-1╬▓), stem cell growth factors-╬▓ (SCGF-╬▓), stromal cell derived factor-1╬▒ (SDF-1╬▒), and tumor necrosis factor-╬▒ (TNF-╬▒).ConclusionOur study suggests that IL-7 and MIP-1╬▓ may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism, and that hypothyroidism may induce a systemic inflammatory response involving multiple cytokines. These findings may have implications for the prevention and treatment of hypothyroidism and its complications. However, further experimental studies are needed to validate the causal relationships and the potential of these cytokines as drug targets

    Serum laser Raman spectroscopy as a potential diagnostic tool to discriminate the benignancy or malignancy of pulmonary nodules

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    Summary: It has been proved that Raman spectral intensities could be used to diagnose lung cancer patients. However, the application of Raman spectroscopy in identifying the patients with pulmonary nodules was barely studied. In this study, we revealed that Raman spectra of serum samples from healthy participants and patients with benign and malignant pulmonary nodules were significantly different. A support vector machine (SVM) model was developed for the classification of Raman spectra with wave points, according to ANOVA test results. It got a good performance with a median area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89, when the SVM model was applied in discriminating benign from malignant individuals. Compared with three common clinical models, the SVM model showed a better discriminative ability and added more net benefits to participants, which were also excellent in the small-size nodules. Thus, the Raman spectroscopy could be a less-invasive and low-costly liquid biopsy

    EventÔÇÉrelated potential patterns of selective attention modulated by perceptual load

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    Abstract Introduction A high perceptual load can effectively prevent attention from being drawn to irrelevant stimuli; however, the neural pattern underlying this process remains unclear. Methods This study adopted a perceptual load paradigm to examine the temporal processes of attentional modulation by incorporating conditions of perceptual load, distractorÔÇÉtarget compatibility, and eccentricity. Results The behavioral results showed that a high perceptual load significantly reduced attentional distraction caused by peripheral distractors. The eventÔÇÉrelated potential results further revealed that shorter P2 latencies were observed for peripheral distractors than for central distractors under a high perceptual load and that a suppressed compatibility effect with increasing load was reflected by the P3 component. Conclusion These findings suggested that (1) P2 and P3 components effectively captured different sides of attentional processing modulated by load (i.e., the filter processing of the object and the overall attentional resource allocation) and (2) response patterns of selective attention modulated by perceptual load were influenced by eccentricity. Our electrophysiological evidence confirmed the behavioral findings, indicating the neural mechanisms of attentional modulation

    Altered Functional Connectivity in Children with ADHD Revealed by Scalp EEG: An ERP Study

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    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental brain disorders in childhood. Despite extensive researches, the neurobiological mechanism underlying ADHD is still left unveiled. Since the deficit functions, such as attention, have been demonstrated in ADHD, in our present study, based on the oddball P3 task, the corresponding electroencephalogram (EEG) of both healthy controls (HCs) and ADHD children was first collected. And we then not only focused on the event-related potential (ERP) evoked during tasks but also investigated related brain networks. Although an insignificant difference in behavior was found between the HCs and ADHD children, significant electrophysiological differences were found in both ERPs and brain networks. In detail, the dysfunctional attention occurred during the early stage of the designed task; as compared to HCs, the reduced P2 and N2 amplitudes in ADHD children were found, and the atypical information interaction might further underpin such a deficit. On the one hand, when investigating the cortical activity, HCs recruited much stronger brain activity mainly in the temporal and frontal regions, compared to ADHD children; on the other hand, the brain network showed atypical enhanced long-range connectivity between the frontal and occipital lobes but attenuated connectivity among frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes in ADHD children. We hope that the findings in this study may be instructive for the understanding of cognitive processing in children with ADHD

    Causal interactions in resting-state networks predict perceived loneliness

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    <div><p>Loneliness is broadly described as a negative emotional response resulting from the differences between the actual and desired social relations of an individual, which is related to the neural responses in connection with social and emotional stimuli. Prior research has discovered that some neural regions play a role in loneliness. However, little is known about the differences among individuals in loneliness and the relationship of those differences to differences in neural networks. The current study aimed to investigate individual differences in perceived loneliness related to the causal interactions between resting-state networks (RSNs), including the dorsal attentional network (DAN), the ventral attentional network (VAN), the affective network (AfN) and the visual network (VN). Using conditional granger causal analysis of resting-state fMRI data, we revealed that the weaker causal flow from DAN to VAN is related to higher loneliness scores, and the decreased causal flow from AfN to VN is also related to higher loneliness scores. Our results clearly support the hypothesis that there is a connection between loneliness and neural networks. It is envisaged that neural network features could play a key role in characterizing the loneliness of an individual.</p></div
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